Thomas Jefferson, Family, and Republican Education
Courtney Bailey 
Student’s Major: Political Science
Faculty Sponsor: Dr. Michael Schwarz, History
Leaders of America’s Founding generation acknowledged the precariousness of their republican experiment and worked to ensure its preservation, but none thought more seriously about the importance of education in shaping republican citizens than did Thomas Jefferson.  A prolific writer, Jefferson often emphasized the relationship between education and liberty.  His devotion to republicanism and his lifelong efforts on behalf of public and liberal education have been well chronicled.  His view of the critical role families played in the education of young republicans, on the other hand, has received less attention.  In my talk I will focus on Jefferson as a father and uncle and explain how his guidance was essential to the education of the children under his care.  For instance, by the time he turned forty years old Jefferson was a widower charged not only with the education of his young daughters but also with that of his nephews, who had lost their father at a young age.  When absent from Monticello, Jefferson often sent these children written instructions on how best to organize study time, what books to read, and when to report back to him on their progress.  What mattered, therefore, was not the precise structure of Jefferson’s family but the degree of his involvement with all those whose educations depended on him.  In short, I will argue that Jefferson’s understanding of a family’s responsibility to ensure that children receive a republican education proved significant in his time and should continue to resonate in ours. 
Blocking the Expression of Zebrafish αA-crystallin to Determine Its Role in Lens Development and Cataract Prevention
Kelly Murray 
Student’s Major: Biology
Faculty Sponsor: Dr. Mason Posner, Biology
The protein αA-crystallin is a major component of the lens, helping to produce its transparency and focusing light on the retina.  Alpha crystallins also function as small heat shock proteins (sHSPs), preventing damaged or ageing proteins from aggregating.  αA-crystallin is expressed outside the lens as well, where it may play a protective role by acting as a sHSP. Several diseases have been linked to altered alpha crystallin expression, including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and cataract.  Blocking the production of αA-crystallin could help to characterize its possible roles in both the lens and non-lenticular tissues.  Currently, the most promising method of halting expression of a gene is through the use of the CRISPR-Cas system, first described in 2013. We hypothesized that preventing the production of αA-crystallin would lead to cataract as zebrafish age. To test this hypothesis, we have started to use the CRISPR-Cas approach to successfully disable the alpha crystallin gene.  Zebrafish embryos were injected with Cas9 protein and guide RNA targeting a site located in the αA-crystallin coding region.  An assay for detecting gene modification showed that approximately 10% of injected embryos contained an altered αA-crystallin gene. Further use of this method could lead to the generation of a line of zebrafish lacking a functional αA-crystallin protein and could facilitate a broad range of further research on the activity of this protein and its effects on development and ageing.

The Affective Forecasting Error: Predicting Negative Affect
Amanda Mayes 
Student’s Major: Psychology
Faculty Sponsor: Dr. Diane B. V. Bonfiglio, Psychology
Affective forecasting is the process of estimating how a person will feel in a future situation. When engaging in affective forecasting, people have a tendency to overestimate how they badly they will feel when confronted with a negative personal situation (Gilbert, Pinel, Wilson, Blumberg, & Wheatly, 1998).  The actual experiencing of that same event is associated with higher positive affect than is forecasted (Buehler & McFarland, 2001).  The present study used a novel negative experience manipulation to compare positive and negative affect between a group of people who actually experienced a negative event and another group that was asked to imagine the same event happening to them. Seventy-six participants were asked to spend ten minutes drawing something that held emotional meaning for them.  They were told that the drawing was going to be submitted to a competition where the winner would receive a fifteen dollar gift card for the bookstore.  Participants randomly assigned to the experiencing group were told that their drawings were unacceptable, and the drawings were torn up.  Participants in the forecasting group were asked to imagine how they would feel if this happened to them.  The participants completed a demographic questionnaire and a questionnaire designed to measure positive and negative affect.  The results show that affective forecasters reported more negative affect, t(75) = 4.188, p < 0.001, and less positive affect, t(75) = -5.659, p < 0.001, than did the experiencers.   These results are consistent with previous research on affective forecasting.

The Work Involved in Live Radio Broadcasting: A Look into What is Usually Only Heard
Chris Beisel 
Student’s Major: Digital Media Production
Faculty Sponsor: Steve Suess, Journalism & Digital Media
Live radio broadcasts occur every day throughout the country. Interestingly, the time of day that announcers speak on the air is directly related to their popularity. The most popular moments for listeners to tune in to a radio station are known as the “Drive-Times.” These times consist of the early morning hours and the evening hours—the times when listeners go to and from work. Knowing this, as the Program Director of Ashland University’s radio station 88.9 WRDL, I wanted to implement a programming structure that met listener tendencies to tune in. With this goal came WRDL’s first morning talk show, “The Early Bird’s Word,” which started in 2013. The morning show consists of conversational talk, featured interviews, and planned music breaks. In this presentation, I want to explain how Ashland’s only live & local morning radio talk show was started. Through examples of my work and discussion of the creative process used to create the show, I will show how what started as an idea turned into a weekday morning routine. This presentation will also include a description of the show’s programming clock, looking even further at how the clock started and evolved over time. Finally, I will discuss how the show implemented the scheduling of weekly interviews—including both consistent returner interviews with weekly guests and unique interviews that occur only once.

“The ‘L’ Train”
Garrison Stima
Student’s Major: Creative Writing and Religion
Faculty Sponsor: Dr. Joe Mackall, English
Throughout the year 2012, I’d been going through a particularly rough patch in my Christian faith. However, while on a Mission Trip to Chicago, Illinois, during that summer, I experienced a powerful moment in my life that showed to me, what I believe to be, the true heart of God. Prior to this event, I’d had a hard time feeling anything related to an emotion, let alone God. This short chapter of my life opened me up to an understanding of God that I’d never had before, but it came from an unexpected place and from a broken stranger I briefly interacted with on the "L" train. In this essay, I explore how I was inspired by this moment because of the life-changing ramifications it had on my life, from how I see people, how I look at the world, and how I view the God who loves it all. 

“A Portrait of Humanity”- Classical Ballet and the American Democratic Regime
September M. Long 
Student’s Majors: Political Science and History
Faculty Sponsor: Dr. Jeff Sikkenga, History/Political Science
Classical ballet is a fairly new art form for America. The art was transported to the United States at the turn of the twentieth century when the Russian ballet company Ballet Russe toured the west. Ballet was initially perceived as a strange and foreign art which was in no way compatible with the interests of the average American. With aristocratic forms embedded in the very nature of ballet, it was rejected by many Americans who viewed it as a peculiar European art with no element of entertainment to offer. It seemed as though ballet, an art which seeks to present beauty and harmony in the most elegant way possible, would never win over the hearts of the American people. Beginning roughly in the Cold War era, the situation changed greatly for ballet. A combination of unusual circumstances and individuals paved the way for ballet’s road to success. I will attempt to answer the question: “how and why did ballet succeed in America?” This talk will focus on what manner ballet transitioned from a spectacle at local side-shows to a serious and important art form. In order to understand this transition, we must also consider the nature of the democratic regime and why our love of equality initially caused us to reject ballet. I will briefly discuss the individuals who were responsible for cultivating ballet in America and how they were able to make this art acceptable and interesting to the American audience.

Characterization of the Bacteriophage AUEF3 Nucleotides
Mack Reece 
Student’s Majors: Biology and Biochemistry
Faculty Sponsor: Dr. Paul Hyman, Biology
The isolation and initial characterization of the novel bacteriophage AUEF3 that infects Enterococcus faecalis was presented last year. The host bacterium has emerged as a healthcare associated infection, especially with the use of IV’s and catheters. Typically, antibacterial agents must be used to control the pathogen. Bacteriophages (phages) are viruses that infect bacteria and have proven to show antimicrobial activity against host bacteria, a method called phage therapy. When compared to other antimicrobial activity, bacteriophages have no serious side effects to humans. In this study, a novel bacteriophage that successfully infects E. faecalis was isolated. Results show this phage, AUEF3, grows by breaking open host cells after about an hour after infection, releasing progeny bacteriophages. Electron microscopy revealed that AUEF3 has an icosahedral head and a long flexible tail. DNA was also isolated and sequenced with a genome of a total size of 41,157 base pairs. Most recently, nucleotides that make up the DNA genome of the virus have been analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).  Two of the nucleotides are chemically modified by the bacteriophage.  This is often seen in bacteriophages to adapt to bacterial defense mechanisms.  Current studies are analyzing the nucleotides of AUEF3 further to identify the chemical modifications.

Islamic Government and Footholds for Democracy
Brandon Cook 
Student’s Majors: History and Political Science
Faculty Sponsor: Dr. David Foster, History/Political Science
The political tension between many Muslim countries of the Middle East and the democratic West has intensified in the last generation. One side derives its political ideas from a religion whose holy book, The Koran, sometimes acts as their constitution and where God’s Law (Sharia) is absolute. The other side champions democracy, and in the United States the Constitution is derived from the people. This profound difference has prompted many political thinkers, Muslim and American alike, to wonder whether democracy can be incorporated into Islamic government. In this presentation, I will consider this question by examining the political thought of the Ayatollah Khomeini, the former Supreme Leader of Iran.  I will argue that despite its reliance upon the authority of the Koran, Khomeini’s thought is open to some democratic ideals, especially if we consider certain silences in Islamic Law. In Khomeini’s view, a ruler is necessary, yet the Koran makes no explicit rules as to who that ruler shall be. Khomeini’s solution is to fill the seat with any person who has knowledge of Islamic law and justice. It is well known in Islam that any Muslim is capable of this knowledge, which essentially means that any Muslim man could be ruler. That fact is remarkably democratic. Yet the commands of the Koran and Sharia set limits to how far democracy can progress. Khomeini’s thought allows for democratic elements in some areas, but not the liberal form of democracy with which the United States is familiar.

The Wisdom and Faith of King Solomon
Johnathon Case
Student’s Majors: Political Science, History, and Philosophy
Faculty Sponsor: Dr. Louis Mancha, Jr., Philosophy
This paper explores the Biblical account of King Solomon’s life to understand how a man that the Bible itself calls the “wisest of all men” ultimately turns from God. Solomon, as portrayed through the narrative of his life and his own works, seems to show that wisdom and faith are meant to complement one another, but do not necessarily do so. As a youth, Solomon is entirely obedient to David and faithful to God. Throughout Proverbs, Solomon extols wisdom and discipline, implying that there is no wisdom outside of the Law and its tradition. After receiving the gift of wisdom, Solomon seems to live happily fulfilling God’s instructions and applying the Law to the people of Israel. However, as the king, Solomon encounters certain situations that seem to call for wisdom beyond the law – for example, in understanding how to deal with political opponents, diplomacy with foreign nations, and moral disputes between Israelites. In those situations, which are only faced by the king, his own wisdom seems to be necessary because the Law is not sufficient to determine the right course of action. Solomon very likely saw the incompleteness of the Mosaic Law in dealing with political necessities as sufficient grounds to believe he was wiser than the Law itself, and so, he could easily have come to believe himself above the Mosaic Law. The Mosaic Law, though, was a law of men, and so, even directed by God, it must be general and limited; it must be imperfect. Solomon’s own wisdom in the particulars may have possessed wisdom that the Mosaic Law did not, but what Solomon seems to have missed is that the wise, yet imperfect, Mosaic Law was directed by God through a higher law: the wise and perfect Divine Law.

Sieve Bootstrap-Based Prediction Intervals for GARCH Processes
Garrett Tresch 
Student’s Majors: Mathematics and Actuarial Science
Faculty Sponsor: Dr.Maduka  Rupasinghe, Mathematics
Time Series deals with observing a variable—interest rates, exchange rates, rainfall, etc.—at regular intervals of time. The main objectives of Time Series analysis are to understand the underlying processes and effects of external variables in order to predict future values. Time Series methodologies have wide applications in the fields of business in which mathematics is necessary. The Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasic (GARCH) models are extensively used in finance and econometrics to model empirical time series in which the current variation, known as volatility, of an observation is depending upon the past observations and past variations. Some of the drawbacks of the existing methods for obtaining prediction intervals include the assumption that the orders associated with the GARCH process are known and the heavy computational time involved in fitting numerous GARCH processes. This paper proposes a novel and computationally efficient method using the Sieve Bootstrap, a promising procedure for Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA) processes, for computing prediction intervals for the returns as well as the volatilities of GARCH processes while also avoiding extensive computations. Our Monte Carlo simulation study shows that the proposed method works very well under normal, exponential and t-distributed errors.

Intellect and Satire: The Role of Mrs. Selwyn in Evelina
Emily Cardwell 
Student’s Majors: English and History
Faculty Sponsor: Dr. Hilary Donatini, English
Throughout Frances Burney’s 1778 novel Evelina, the female characters provide varied depictions of femininity and a woman’s role in society. One character whose gender expression is especially problematic is Mrs. Selwyn, the temporary guardian of the novel’s protagonist, Evelina. Critic John Richetti asserts that Burney meant for Mrs. Selwyn to serve as a negative, comic, and secondary character in the text, but my reading suggests that Mrs. Selwyn plays a much more constructive role. Although Evelina often shows Mrs. Selwyn in a negative light, giving her correspondents detailed accounts of Mrs. Selwyn’s lack of graces, Burney maintains a more approving view of Mrs. Selwyn than her main character, characterizing Mrs. Selwyn with a sharp intellect and providing her with numerous opportunities to shame antagonistic male characters by exposing their foolishness. This presentation argues that although Mrs. Selwyn’s particular manner and style of expressing her intellectual superiority are not necessarily appropriate for a woman of her time period, her intellectual abilities enable her to function as an agent of satire throughout the novel, allowing Burney to explore the possibilities for rebelling against the social constraints of womanhood. I compare Mrs. Selwyn’s character with the “ideal woman” described in A Father’s Legacy to His Daughters (1774), an eighteenth-century conduct book written by John Gregory. Burney mainly endorses this code of conduct by pointedly illustrating Mrs. Selwyn’s lack of decorum but rejects its encouragement of women’s intellectual inferiority by lavishing the character with dazzling intellect and wit, reflecting Burney’s own genius.

Context Effects in Trustworthiness Ratings
Ashley Keres 
Student’s Major: Psychology major
Faculty Sponsor: Dr. Christopher R. Chartier, Psychology
Perceived trustworthiness and facial structure are directly related (Rule et al., 2012). This experiment tested the hypothesis that environmental context can have a similar effect on perceived trustworthiness. Participants were placed at individual computer stations with a PowerPoint presentation set to advance slides on a timer. Each slide contained a random face that was rated in the Rule and colleagues study as being trustworthy or untrustworthy. The face appeared on a background with a high socioeconomic class home, a low-income home, or no home (control). This resulted in a 2 (face: trustworthy or untrustworthy) X 3 (context: high, low, or control) within-subjects design. As they worked through the photos, participants rated each face on a 1-7 scale on various traits including trustworthiness, aggressiveness, and attractiveness. We predicted that the faces on the low-income home background would be rated as less trustworthy than those on the high socioeconomic class home background, regardless of the actual pre-rated trustworthiness of the individual in the photo. Rule et al.’s previous findings were replicated and extended. There was a main effect of both facial trustworthiness F(1,52) = 71.50, p < 0.001 and background F(2,104) = 16.296, p < 0.001. Trustworthy faces seen in a high-class background were rated as more trustworthy (M = 23.55, S = 8.85) than those same faces seen in a low trustworthy background (M = 19.13, SD = 5.53). Both the structure of one’s face and the context in which the face is seen appear to impact perceptions of trustworthiness.

Synthesis of Four-Armed Star Block Copolymers for Potential Drug-Delivery Applications
Kylee Bogner  
Student’s Major: Chemistry
Faculty Sponsor: Dr. Perry Corbin, Chemistry
Polylactide (PLA) is a biodegradable polymer (i.e., a plastic) that is beginning to be used for various functions; among these are drug-delivery applications.  When polyethylene glycol (PEG), a different polymer, is attached to the end of PLA, linear molecules that aggregate in water to form a drug-delivery transport are produced. This transport may allow trapped medicinal molecules to slowly release in the body; however, such transports have been shown to prematurely disassemble. My research is focused on the production of a PLA/PEG star block copolymer—a polymer containing a central molecular core with attached polymer arms.  These molecules are hypothesized to work better than previously created linear polymers for drug-delivery transports. Multiple polymer chains are already tied together in star-shaped polymers, which should create more stable transports. The core of the star is a calixarene containing four locations for attaching PLA. Reactions to form the PLA star polymer have been developed along with modifications to facilitate attachment of PEG to the PLA arms. Subsequent reactions to attach PEG to PLA have been successful, as determined by gel-permeation chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The optimal amount of catalyst and PEG needed for the reaction is being determined on a small scale using No-deuterium (No-D) NMR spectroscopy. Details of the synthesis of these new molecules will be described in my presentation. Future research will investigate the potential of the star-shaped polymers to function as stable drug-delivery transports.

Impact of Reward on Helping Behavior
Melissa Smith and Sara Amato 
Students’ Majors: Psychology and Criminal Justice (both students)
Faculty Sponsor: Dr. Christopher R. Chartier
Helping behavior is an important domain in social psychology. Many studies have measured different variables’ effects on helping behavior, such as personal norms (Schwarts, 1973), social responsibility norms (Berkowitz & Daniels, 1964), and social class (Berkowitz & Friedman, 1967). The current study investigated the effect of losing a potential reward on whether the participant would help a person in need. There were three different conditions across which the importance of the individual’s task was manipulated (no reward, small reward, and large reward). For each word found in a word search, the small reward group received an entry into a drawing for a $5 AU Bookstore giftcard, while the large reward group received an entry into a drawing for a $25 AU Bookstore giftcard. During the timed task, a researcher knocked over a cup of pencils and measured whether or not the participant helped. If the participant did help, how many pencils they picked up was measured. We predicted that a higher proportion of participants in the no and small reward conditions would help compared to the large reward group. However, the results of this study were surprising, with only one person out of 65 helping. The results did not indicate a significant effect of reward on helping behavior, c2(65) = 1.985, p = 0.3706. This lack of helping behavior may be caused by the fact that helping had no perceived benefit for participants, regardless of the reward condition.

Chemical and Toxicity Analysis of an Environmentally Friendly Cleaning Product
Hannah J. Baumann 
Student’s Major: Toxicology
Faculty Sponsors:  Dr. Douglas Dawson, Biology/Toxicology & Dr. Jeffrey Weidenhamer, Chemistry
Concerns about toxicity of commercial cleaning products have prompted development of several environmentally friendly cleaners that include natural oils that kill bacteria. One such cleaner known to contain components of thyme, lemongrass and oregano essential oils was analyzed for toxicity and to quantify chemical content. The study correlated the toxicity of essential oil components to the toxicity of the cleaner using analytical chemistry. Several monoterpenes commonly found in the oils, including thymol, p-cymene, geraniol, carvacrol, terpinene, borneol and linalool, were analyzed for antibacterial properties through single chemical and mixture toxicity tests using the Microtox® bioassay which measures toxicity based on the decreased luminescence of the bacterium Vibrio fischeri. Terpenes were removed from a known amount of cleaner through evaporation followed by heating under vacuum. The remaining surfactants were tested for toxicity and used to prepare aqueous standard solutions of thymol, geraniol, linalool, p-cymene, terpinene, borneol, eucalyptol, carene, camphene, pinene and caryophyllene at 10 to 40 mg/L. Chemical analysis of the cleaner was carried out using solid phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  Camphor was used as an internal standard.   Response factors were then used to quantify the components in the soap: thymol 367 mg/L, geraniol 18.4 mg/L, linalool 32.4 mg/L, p-cymene 0.0491 mg/L, terpinene 0.0110 mg/L, borneol 6.17 mg/L, camphene 0.113 mg/L, pinene 0.0266 mg/L and caryophyllene 0.120 mg/L. This study revealed that thymol, linalool, geraniol and borneol were the primary antibacterial agents in the cleaner and in mixtures they were dose additive with each other.

Consumer Behavior and the Impact of “No” Labels
Edie Henthorne 
Student’s Majors: Psychology and Business Administration
Faculty Sponsor: Dr. Christopher R. Chartier, Psychology
Current research on consumer behavior focuses largely on packaging and food labels (Aday & Yener, 2014; Schuldt, 2013). However, there is little if any research on the impact of “no” labels.  Example of “no” labels are: “0% Sulfates”, “Gluten Free”, or “Lead Not Included.”  We hypothesized that “no” labels on products would influence participants to choose the product with the “no” label. They were exposed to 12 sets of products. Two products (with and without the “no” label) were presented at a time. First, the number of times participants chose a “no” label product was determined.  Secondly, open ended responses were examined to determine if the “no” label was the reason for choosing the “no” label product. Fifty-eight students participated which resulted in 580 responses of product choice.  A chi-squared analysis was used to determine whether or not participants chose enough of the products with the “no” label to show a significant preference.  This hypothesis was not supported, c2(N = 580) = 1.99, p = .16. For the second hypothesis, 109 of the open ended responses included a “no” label as an explanation for choosing a product.  The results of the chi-squared test was significant, c2(N=109) = 54.39, p < .001, which suggests that when participants mentioned the “no” label in their response they were strongly inclined to choose the “no” label product. These results suggest an increase in product favorability as a result of the “no” label.                

Chemical and Petrographic Analysis Indicates Differences in the Origin for Granitic Gneisses Within the Popple Hill Gneiss in the Adirondack Lowlands, New York
Mackenzie Taylor
Student’s Major: Geology
Faculty Sponsor:  Dr. Michael Hudson, Geology
This study examined hand samples, microscopic sections, and chemical analyses from diverse granitic gneisses intimately interwoven with the Popple Hill Gneiss (PHG) in the Adirondack Lowlands to study their petrogenesis.  These granitic gneisses occur as regionally concordant, discontinuous layers and lenticular bodies, range from a few meters to 100s of meters in width and up to kilometers in length, and occupy as much as 35-50% of exposures of PHG.  Some bodies have been designated as Hermon Granite (HG), a microcline megacrystic, well-foliated, calc-alkaline intrusive emplaced within PHG and subsequently deformed during the Shawinigan orogeny.  Relict igneous textures are pervasive, perthite and myrmekite are common, and strain is evident in bent twin lamellae, lenticulation, and tension gashes.  Geochemical results from this study match those published by Peck, et al. (2013), supporting their hypothesis that the HG may have been derived from melting of metasomatized mantle during collision of the Lowlands and Frontenac terrane.  However, the majority of granitic gneiss components of the PHG are more heterogeneous in their color, texture, and composition.  Ranging from white to pink, most are inequigranular (fine- to coarse-grained, but lack megacrysts), many are only weakly foliated, and microcline and quartz are ubiquitous.  Geochemically they constitute a calc-alkaline suite that is indistinguishable from the PHG on a variety of chemical and tectonic discrimination diagrams.  Therefore, observations from this study strongly suggest that these granitic gneisses represent locally derived (anatexis of lower PHG) synorogenic, possibly polychromic, transposed migmatitic intrusions and should not be designated as HG.

Aluminum Cookware is a Potential Source of Lead Exposure in Developing Countries
Peter Kobunski and Alison Biro
Students’ Majors: Biochemistry (PK); Toxicology (AB)
Faculty Sponsors:  Dr. Jeffrey Weidenhamer, Chemistry and Dr. Rebecca Corbin, Chemistry
Heavy metal toxicity, especially from lead, is a global health problem. Lead exposure accounts for 674,000 deaths annually.  Lead poisoning can lead to severe neurological dysfunction, particularly in children.  Even trace amounts of lead can cause significant health issues such as attention-related and behavioral effects, learning disabilities, and criminal behavior. A previous investigation of inexpensive aluminum cookware from Cameroon found that many samples released lead, with estimated exposures as high as 260 micrograms (mcg) per serving.  Our objective was to determine whether cookware from other developing countries leached unsafe levels of lead during conditions simulating cooking. Samples (3-5 per country) were obtained from India, Indonesia, Kenya, the Philippines, Nepal, Guatemala, Tanzania and the Ivory Coast. Each cookware sample was tested by boiling 4% acetic acid within the vessel for 2 hours. The resulting leachate solution was tested for lead and other metals including cadmium, arsenic and aluminum by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry (ICP) analysis.  Of the 31 samples tested thus far, nine leached significant levels of lead.  Measureable levels of cadmium have been detected from nineteen pots, and one released a large amount of potentially toxic thallium.  All pots released very high levels of aluminum.  Estimated lead exposures ranging from <1 to 170 micrograms (mcg) per serving.  According to the US Centers for Disease Control, there is no level of lead exposure without harmful effects to children.  Our results confirm that inexpensive aluminum cookware may be a significant source of lead poisoning in the developing world.

Priming Optimism and Memory Function
Nicole Brigham and James Lentine 
Students’ Majors: Psychology (NB); Psychology (JL)
Faculty Sponsors: Dr. Mitchell Metzger & Dr. Diane B. V. Bonfiglio, Psychology
Fosnaugh, Geers, and Willman (2009) found that by getting individuals to think about positive future life events one can temporarily increase the individual’s level of optimism. In this study, we primed optimism in participants to examine the effects of priming optimism on memory for positive and neutral stimuli. We predicted that participants primed to be optimistic would show enhanced recall. Forty-four participants were randomly assigned to either the priming or control condition.  In the priming condition, participants completed a future-thinking questionnaire to induce a temporary optimistic state. Then, they were exposed to a list of positive and neutral words and were immediately asked to recall as many words as they could.  They then completed a measure of optimism and a demographics questionnaire. Participants in the control condition completed all of the same procedures except the future-thinking questionnaire. Across both positive and neutral words, we found that the mean number of memorized words was 8.93 for the primed group and 8.13 for the control group. These means were not statistically significantly different (t(42) = 0.874, p = 0.387).These data suggest that priming optimism does not seem to have an effect on memorization of words in general. We hope to extend this work to examine specific effects of priming optimism on memory for positive words.

Then and Now: The Kardiac Kids
Courtney Troyer and Haley Pittman  
Students’ Majors: Sport Communication and Public Relations (CT); Sport Communication, Public Relations, and Health and Risk Communication (HP)
Faculty Sponsor: Dr. Dariela Rodriguez, Communication
The 1980 Cleveland Browns, commonly known as the Kardiac Kids, was a team to remember for the dedicated fans of Cleveland.  Giving fans a last minute victory was a reason enough to go into “kardiac” arrest, quickly to earn the respectable name.  This nerve-wracking but victorious team directly connects to the concept of a sports hero in mythology and how people treat this concept as if it is their religion.  The concept of mythology dates back to the age of the ancient Greeks.  In Greek mythology, heroes were seen to be bigger than the average man, achieving historic accomplishments, victories.  In the world of sport, the sport heroes were created in the same manner. Although many sports heroes may not be victorious with every move they make, they will always be looked back upon and be remembered as legendary because of their accomplishments.  Without the product of the media in today’s society, these sport legends would not be as recognizable and made to be who they are today.  As we move forward from 1980 away from the Kardiac Kids, statistics show that the “Kardiac Kids 2.0” are on the rise in the Brown’s 2014 NFL season. In preparation for our analysis of this topic, we researched old articles and stories that were written about the 1980 Browns team.  We then continued to search for articles that were written during the 2014 season about this years’ Cleveland Browns to show the comparisons that were being made between the two teams. 

Sehnsucht: Longing for “Home”
Cecelia Maxwell 
Student’s Major: Fine Arts (Digital Art and Printmaking)
Faculty Sponsors: Prof. Keith Dull and Prof. Jessica Wascak, Art
The German concept of sehnsucht has been characterized as a high degree of intense, recurring desire for something, particularly if there is no hope to attain that which is desired or when its attainment is uncertain and still far away.  As an artist, I want to provide the viewer with an inside look into what it feels like to have a longing for a place and remind them of when they last felt such a desire. I have had the privilege of visiting Scotland multiple times and each trip has influenced me greatly.  The experiences I had left me with a feeling of homesickness for a place that I have never even lived.  Therefore, a major component of my digital artwork is self-portraiture. By breaking up these images and physically separating them on the wall where they are displayed, I can emphasize the idea of distance and create a sense of time that shows how far away the attainment of my goals feels.  The animals I incorporate draw upon a long-standing tradition in which they have been used to represent human qualities, allowing me to show the true characteristics that I find in the people around me as I progress toward my goal of moving to Scotland.  This body of work explores my own personal experiences in relation to the idea of sehnsucht while offering the audience a reminder of the last time they faced a transition to the next step of their lives.

Many Labs 3: Time of Semester Effects
Ashley Keres and Emily Shrider
Students’ Majors: Psychology (AK); Psychology (ES)
Faculty Sponsor: Dr. Christopher R. Chartier, Psychology
Many psychologists rely on undergraduate students as their primary source of participants.  Most frequently, the students themselves decide when to participate, meaning that some students participate early on while others participate towards the end of the semester.  The idea is that earlier students are more conscientious and diligent in their performance in research tasks. Labs across the country administered a single protocol to assess 12 known psychological effects.  At Ashland, 40 participants participated during both the first and second halves of the fall 2014 semester.  One effect of particular importance was a test of clipboard weight on the perception of issue importance.  Previous studies suggest that holding heavier objects indicates a weightier, more serious perception of a topic.  There were no main effects of either time of semester or weight of the clipboard.  Interestingly, there was a marginal interaction between the two, F(1,81) = 3.88, p = .052.  In the first half of the semester the issue was rated marginally more important in the heavy condition (M = 6.55, SD = 0.67) than the light condition (M = 6.05, SD = 1.36), t(42) = 1.55, p =.065. This was descriptively reversed in the second half of the semester where the issue was rated as more important in the light condition (M = 6.57, SD = .51) than the heavy condition (M = 6.15, SD = 1.46), t(39) = 1.25, p = .11.  This pattern provides moderate support for the idea that earlier participants will behave in more predictable ways.

Investigation of the Chemistry of Red Maple Foliage, Acer rubrum
Alexander Kaple 
Student’s Major: Biochemistry
Faculty Sponsor: Dr. Jeffrey Weidenhamer, Chemistry
Wilted leaves of red maple (Acer rubrum) are toxic to horses, causing death by oxidation of hemoglobin and inducing anemia. Previous research in our lab suggested that a novel chemical component is present in red maple leaves after wilting, and focused on identification of the suspected novel compound.  The objective of this project was to identify and characterize chemical compounds in the foliage extracts of red maple that are associated with the observed toxicity to horses.  Fresh and wilted extracts of red maple leaves were qualitatively characterized by Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC).  No obvious differences in fresh and wilted chemistry were observed.  HPLC analysis has confirmed that there is both free and bound gallic acid, a known toxin, present in red maple leaves.  The concentration of gallic acid in red maple has not previously been reported.  A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method is being developed to confirm the quantity of gallic acid present in red maple and two other maple species, silver maple (Acer saccharinum) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum).  Qualitative comparison of the chemistry of red maple extracts with those of silver maple and sugar maple by HPLC shows substantial differences, and these are being further investigated.  Further separation of the bulk red maple extract is being carried out using Sephadex LH-20 chromatography.  Isolated compounds will be characterized by NMR and mass spectroscopy.

Switching Rules in Tacit Coordination:  Deciding Who Will Act to Ensure Group Success
Sara Lautzenhiser 
Student’s Major: Psychology
Faculty Sponsor: Dr. Christopher R. Chartier, Psychology
Tacit Coordination is critical to smoothly navigating social life (Kelley & Thibaut, 1968). The process of tacit coordination requires complementary alignment of decision making without direct communication. Research has focused on the types of knowledge that allowed interacting parties to coordinate successfully (Abele & Stasser, 2008; Chartier & Abele, under review).  This study examines how successful dyads are at a changing locations task and attempts to identify whether even very minimal social information enhances coordination. Participants performed a coordination mismatching task that required the members to make opposite decisions in order to succeed. Prior to the experiment, the participants knew nothing about their partners. Before the task, half of the dyads were given three minutes alone to communicate while the other half were unable to communicate. Subsequently, all participants completed a task that required one dyad member to “move” from a starting location and one dyad member to “stay” in this location  An analysis of success frequencies revealed that dyads in the study succeeded 59% of the time, which was not significantly different from chance, c2 (N = 44), 1.46, p = .22.  Pilot data suggests that dyads who do not see each other before the interaction perform worse than chance, and more data is being collected to see what, if any, benefit brief social interaction has on tacit coordination in this setting.  Communication is one of the ways that allows a person to coordinate successfully, however, minor social information, such as seeing the other person may help too.

The Effects of Posture on Persistence
Olivia Perna 
Student’s Major: Psychology
Faculty Sponsor: Dr. Christopher R. Chartier, Psychology
Persistence has been linked with physical movement.  Recent research has focused on whether
arm crossing increases a person’s ability to persist on a cognitive task (Friedman & Elliot, 2008).  In this similar study we are extending these results by adding a new condition.  We hypothesized that a constricted posture, may be counterproductive, and added a free choice posture condition allowing us to examine how a participant sits when concentrating in a natural way.  Forcing participants to take a certain posture may cause ego depletion.  Ego depletion is a lack of self-regulatory energy for mental activities.  Participants were asked to sit in one of three postures; free, arms crossed and palms on their thighs.  Next, they were instructed to solve three anagrams in a maximum of six minutes.  Critically, the third of these anagrams was unsolvable.  Participants also took two personality scales, the Need for Cognition Scale and the Self-Efficacy Scale, after completing the anagrams.  A total of 57 students participated in this study.  A one way analysis of variance was not statistically significant, F(2,53) = 2.29 p = .11. The mean anagram times were 232.2 seconds (SD = 111.8) for the free condition, 169.756 seconds (SD = 117.1) for arms crossed, and 164.4 seconds (SD = 97.51) for the palms on thighs condition.  We continue to collect data this semester to assess whether our small sample size prevented us from detecting an effect.  Further research would be helpful in finding if persistence has a connection a specific posture.

Personality Traits and Online Dating: Differences in Age Groups and Gender
Edie Henthorne
Student’s Majors: Psychology and Business Administration
Faculty Sponsor: Dr. Curtis Ickes, Psychology
This study investigates the self-described personality traits of online daters.  Several hypotheses were examined based on types of traits described, frequency, gender, and age (20-30s vs. 50-60s).  The first hypothesis was supported indicating that self-descriptive dating profiles contain more positive than negative traits, c2(N = 816) = 663.843, p < .001. It was also hypothesized that there would be no difference between the likelihood that males and females would use more positive traits than negative traits to describe themselves. This hypothesis was also supported as there were no differences, c2(N = 816) = 0.24, p = 0.624.  A third hypothesis, predicting no difference in the number of positive traits by age group, was also supported, c2(N = 816) = 0.643, p = 0.422.  It was further hypothesized that some personality traits appear more frequently in profiles than other traits. This was confirmed by examining the frequency in which the traits occurred.  Some traits such as caring, fun, and humorous had high frequency counts while traits like sporty, spiritual, and sophisticated only occurred one time. It was also hypothesized that gender differences exist in frequency of the use of specific positive personality traits to describe oneself.  Calculated percentages confirm that there was a difference in 10 traits.  For example, men used the word “attractive” 0.975% of the time and women used it 4.098% of the time.  Finally, age differences were found when examining the top 10 most frequent and positive traits, c2(N = 397) = 48.953, p < .001.  For example, older women stated they were “loving” 35 times while young men only stated it 19 times.    

Evidence for the Effect of Pond Type and Hydroperiod on Fall Zooplankton Abundance in Diverse Small Ponds at the Black Fork Wetlands Preserve
Rosalie Sepesy and Olivia Macek 
Students’ Majors: Biology and Environmental Science (both students)
Faculty Sponsor: Dr. Patricia Saunders, Biology and Environmental Science
In the Black Fork Wetlands, ponds adjacent to the river have various hydroperiods, or durations of pooled water. More permanent ponds show year-round water retention, and more temporary ponds typically have seasonal drying and filling. Our previous study found that temporary ponds that dried out and then flooded had greater abundance of zooplankton in fall than did the same ponds in a relatively wet year. Zooplankton abundances in permanent ponds were greater and more consistent every year. We predict that seasonal drying followed by significant flooding is linked to stronger zooplankton population growth in temporary ponds, but there are alternative hypotheses for how this may work. For this study, we expanded our comparisons to four ponds and three years with different dry-wet cycles. We quantified zooplankton (cladocerans, copepods and their nauplius larva, ostracods) common to all ponds. In 2014, all ponds, including more permanent ponds, were dry for the several weeks, and all basins refilled gradually and without any flood event from October to December. Preliminary counts for 2014 samples showed low population levels of cladocerans and moderate copepods. This supports our original finding that years with dry and wet periods in typically temporary ponds will stimulate greater accumulation of zooplankton than in wet years. Knowing about the relationship between hydroperiod and zooplankton abundance and the variety of pond food webs is useful for ecologists in conservation areas such as the Black Fork Wetlands, since zooplankton contribute to feeding different salamanders, fish, insects, and other organisms in different ponds.

Obama and ISIS
Lauren Miller  
Student’s Major: Health and Risk Communication
Faculty Sponsor: Dr. Dariela Rodriguez, Communication
Through great events in time, the media has adopted the techniques of media framing and agenda setting to effectively report the news. These techniques allow the media to emphasize topics and frame specific parts of a story. However, such framing often results in a bias towards one party over the other. For example, news affiliates such as NBC use agenda setting to downplay the actions of one political party by highlighting specific quotes or phrases. Media framing has also been used as effective tool drawing attention to specific parts of a story. In recent months, an organization known as Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) has made its presence known to the world through wartime acts and plots intended to bring harm to westerners. Agenda setting and media framing have been the key components to how the media has portrayed and reported news about ISIS. A content analysis of news stories garnered from news websites (e.a., Fox News, CNN) indicated that Americans are at risk for being swayed in the direction of the news source political affiliation.  Regardless of the media outlet, viewers only have a short segment to which they can create their own opinion on the matter.

Face and Object Memory Tests: Introverts and Extroverts with Anxiety Condition
Emily Embrescia 
Student’s Major: Psychology
Faculty Sponsor: Dr. Christopher R. Chartier, Psychology
The purpose of this study is to assess whether introverts or extroverts perform better on face memory tests. We were specifically interested in evaluating if an anxiety inducing condition leads one personality type to excel or suffer. For this face and object memory study we had two conditions, an anxiety condition—where the participant was watched—and a non-anxiety condition—where the participant was not watched. If a participant was in the watched condition, the researcher would sit about two feet away from them and watch them complete the memory tests.  Participants completed two memory tests: objects (trees) and faces.  The first phase of each memory test required participants to see 20 objects or faces appear on the screen for 3 seconds each. The second phase required participants to pick out the 20 objects or faces they previously saw out of 40 objects or faces. Other measures included an anxiety questionnaire and an introvert/extrovert questionnaire. Data was collected from 72 participants. We discovered that there was a significant interaction between anxiety condition and extroversion on the face test, F(1,59) = 5.608, p = .021. Introverts recognized fewer faces when being watched, M = 23.864, SD = 4.43, than when they were not watched, M = 26.575, SD = 3.06. Extroverts did not differ on their performance based on condition, M = 25.778, SD = 1.93 (watched), M = 24.857, SD = 4.67 (not watched). These results suggest that introverts are not as proficient in recognizing faces while being watched as extroverts are.

Synthesis of 2-alkoxy Ether Substituents of Niclosamide Analogs for SAR Study of Anti-tumor Activity
CJ Hassmann
Student’s Major: Biochemistry
Faculty Sponsors: Dr. Rebecca Corbin, Chemistry and Dr. Nick Regan, Chemistry
The drug niclosamide, 5-chloro-N-(2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl)-2 hydroxybenzamide, is an FDA approved anti-worm drug used to treat parasitic infections. Studies have shown that niclosamide exhibits activity in the inhibition of cancer cell proliferation.  A number of Sn2 reactions were conducted by coupling alkyl halides with the 2-hydroxy group of niclosamide. A similar reaction scheme was used to make urea by use of potassium cyanide. These reactions resulted in three alkoxy analogs and a carbonate analog that were characterized by means of melting point, 1HNMR, 13CNMR, and infrared spectroscopy. Once characterized, the compounds were subject to a biological assay to determine their activity against cancer cell proliferation. All analogues, with the exception of carbonate, showed no activity, verifying that a hydrogen bond donor at the 2 position of niclosamide is necessary for activity.

The Fantasy Inside Reality
Danielle Rhonemus 
Student’s Major: Art Education and Fine Arts (Printmaking)
Faculty Sponsor: Prof. Keith Dull, Art
My artwork is a visual representation of the unrealistic longing for fantasized relationships depicted in fairytales. I use different visual symbols to allude to the desire to find one’s prince charming and happy ending. There is a current psychological problem known as the “princess syndrome.” This term is used to describe young girls having unrealistic expectations of the world after watching modern interpretations of fairytales. It can often make adolescents feel inadequate in comparison to these beautiful girls who live happily ever after. By using precious wooden boxes as physical representations of the body, I can conceal feelings and fears inside to represent them being thoughts that are often kept secret. The etched female portrait on the top of each box further pushes the idea of it representing the human body. This is important in allowing the viewer to make the connection that what is inside is meant to be a physical depiction of the individual’s hopes and desires. Inside of the box is a figure in a fantastical space inspired by a specific fairytale related to the female’s dreams for the future. Together, the outer, more direct imagery, combined with the more imaginative scene on the inside, reveal an inner desire for something that cannot be wholly found in the world in which we live. Yet, despite knowing that the girl might never really find everything she imagines, she still holds on to the hope that one day she will find her perfect happy ending.

“Little Red Riding Hood” by Seymour Barab
Abigale Brady, Fatima Imani-Smith, Deric Dove 
Student’s Majors: Music and Psychology (AB); Music (FI); Music Education (DD)
Sponsor:  Prof. Stephanie Sikora, Music
Seymour Barab’s Little Red Riding Hood is a delightful adaptation of the fairy tale classic, in which the scary wolf is transformed into a comic character, and Little Red learns why she should have listened to her mother. In this setting, children are reminded about hygiene, nutrition, good manners, honesty, respect for their elders, and particularly safety.  Before the opera can truly come to life, the performers have plenty of preparation and practice ahead of them.  They must apply all the skills learned in solfeggio, aural training, and advanced music theory, due to non-tonal intervals and unpredictable leaps. Vocal lessons are crucial in order to solidify the demanding technique for these roles.  Additional significant challenges are:  singing with and sometimes against the piano accompaniment, recognizing and identifying various chord structures to help find the pitch and centered intonation, meter and tempo changes, rhythmic speaking/singing, and use of extended vocal ranges.  Throughout this process much musical and vocal growth has taken place, ensuring a strong foundation that will result in successful characterization and overall performance.

Comparing Feature Extraction and Feature Selection Algorithms in Pattern Recognition
Paul Pernici 
Student’s Majors: Computer Science and Mathematics
Dr. Paul Cao, Computer Science
Pattern recognition is the science of discovering the inherent properties of large sets of data. A popular approach uses an artificial neural network (ANN), which is a biologically inspired machine learning model capable of mimicking human cognitive functions. Each ANN consists of a set of neurons and weighted connections, or synapses, between those neurons. The weight of a connection between two neurons represents the strength of their relationship, and is updated during the network's training. Training may use various approaches, but all seek to minimize the errors the network makes on a set of training examples. In the end, the ANN is tested on a new set of data different from the training set. In order for an ANN to recognize handwritten digits, the images used in training must undergo dimension reduction. This reduces each image's noisiness and speeds up the ANN's training, which is quite important in real-world applications. Two general methods of dimension reduction exist: feature selection and feature extraction. Feature selection algorithms choose a subset of pixels from the image based on some criteria, but leave them unchanged. Feature extraction transforms the entire image and in the process achieves dimension reduction. We chose one algorithm of each type: singular value decomposition, a feature extraction algorithm based on matrix algebra, and the Fischer Discriminant Ratio, a feature selection algorithm employing statistical methods. A large scale simulation was carried out which showed that feature extraction algorithms provide better accuracy and robustness, though they tend to involve more calculations.

Anglo-Indian Women and Competing Gender Roles in E.M. Forster’s A Passage to India
Megan Scarberry 
Student’s Major: English
Faculty Sponsor: Dr. Sharleen Mondal, English
In 1857, Indians rebelled against British colonial rule in a revolt called the Indian Mutiny. In response, the English crafted a cultural narrative in which English men had to protect English women from “violent” Indian men, giving rise to the stereotype that Indian men would assault English women at any opportunity. While traditional norms dictated that English women should marry, have children, and be subservient to their husbands, there was simultaneously in England a movement for gender equality. English women living in India (Anglo-Indian women) were expected to maintain traditional norms to preserve imperial power. E.M. Forster’s A Passage to India (1924) depicts Anglo-Indian women stuck between traditional norms and a desire to pursue changing expectations. In particular, Adela Quested rebels against traditional roles, showing that she would rather take on the traditionally masculine role of colonial explorer. She travels to India to observe Ronny, to whom she becomes engaged despite her doubts. Adela accuses an Indian man, Aziz, of rape, which she then begins to doubt, and later retracts at trial, causing Ronny to break their engagement. In these actions, Adela deviates from the Anglo-Indian woman’s role, violating both expectations for marriage and for upholding the Mutiny narrative. Through close reading of the novel in its social and historical context and responding to literary criticism, I argue that Adela’s desire to be a colonial explorer stems from the loss of autonomy women suffer in marriage and the power imbalance that existed between a husband and wife at this time.

A Union Worthy of the Saving
Samuel Mariscal 
Student’s Major: History, Political Science
Faculty Sponsor: Dr. Chris Burkett, History and Political Science
The arguments between Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas on the justice or injustice of slavery allow us to question which of the two is the true statesman. Using passages from Lincoln’s Repeal of the Missouri Compromise speech at Peoria, Illinois, I will show that both Lincoln and Douglas both want to save the Union. Though Douglas wants to save the Union through the Kansas-Nebraska Act, his policy of popular sovereignty mistakenly disorders the Union’s soul by reducing slavery from a moral question to a mere democratic preference. Lincoln wants to reorder the Union soul toward fulfilling the principles of the American founding-especially the principle of equal liberty for all. Douglas wants to save the Union; Lincoln wants to make the Union worth saving. Lincoln’s statesmanship is best revealed in his arguments for restoring the Missouri Compromise, and by so doing, restoring the Union to its righteous path toward ending slavery.

The Golden Periodical
Hallie Carrino, Halee Heironimus, and Kate Siefert
Students’ Majors: Political Science and History (HC); Digital Media Journalism and Sport Communication (HH); Digital Media Journalism and Sport Communication (KS)
Faculty Sponsor: Dr. David McCoy, Journalism and Digital Media
As new media technologies continue to arise, it is important for society to be informed about how to use these technologies as news sources. Our goal was to show the transition from print media to web-based media. We aimed to create a website that provided news stories, videos, and audio pieces that transported our targeted audience past the borders of Ashland county.  We titled our website The Golden Periodical: gold to correlate with AU on the periodic table; periodical as another name for a news source and also a play on words. Our targeted audience members were the Ashland community, including the university, city, and county. This project required both individual work and collaborative teamwork. We delegated stories for each individual to compose, focused on the layout and design of the website, and narrowed down what stories were the most intriguing to viewers of our webpage. Within our research experience, we generated story ideas and constructed articles that we thought would capture our targeted audience. The articles required archival research about the subject, the access of primary sources, and multiple interviews. In our oral presentation, we will share the important elements of the website, including story research, writing, and recording, that will enlighten the audience and encourage them to appreciate new media technologies.

A Paragon of Proslavery Thought: The Forgotten Influence of Thomas Roderick Dew
Joey Barretta 
Student’s Majors: International Political Studies, Political Science, and History
Faculty Sponsor: Dr. Michael Schwarz, History
During the first half-century of America’s existence as an independent republic, no statesman or writer of consequence attempted to justify African slavery on principle.  In the second quarter of the nineteenth century, however, a number of southern writers began crafting complex arguments in defense of slavery.  Some, like South Carolina’s John C. Calhoun, even called slavery a “positive good.”  In my talk, I will discuss one of the more thoughtful and influential proslavery writers of the 1830s, Virginia’s Thomas Roderick Dew, professor and later president at the College of William and Mary.  Dew wrote that slavery was necessary, practical, and beneficial for master and slave alike. If freed, he argued, former slaves were likely to incite a violent rebellion as retribution for their previous condition. Dew cited statistical evidence showing, among other things, that free blacks were a large proportion of convicts in the North even though they represented a small portion of the overall population.  In short, I will explain how slavery came to be advocated not only by plantation owners but by southern intellectuals such as Dew, how they used empirical evidence to support their claims, and why they thought themselves morally correct. 

The Effects of Essay Topic, Gender, and Education Level on Peer Grading
Mary Moeller 
Student’s Major: Psychology
Faculty Sponsor: Dr. Diane B. V. Bonfiglio, Psychology
This study examined whether subject matter, essayist gender, and essayist level of education influenced grading of an essay. In order to examine this, 70 participants were randomly assigned to read an essay with either a stereotypically female topic (about an author’s collected works) or a stereotypically male topic (about politics in sports). Within those conditions, participants were also randomly assigned to be told either that the essay was written by a male essayist or female essayist. Finally, participants were randomly assigned to be told either that the essay was written by a high school student or a graduate student. Participants were then asked to grade the essay they were given according to the SAT grading rubric, which was printed out and provided for them.  Results indicated there is a statistically significant main effect of education, meaning that those who were told the essays were written by graduate students graded the essays higher than those who were told the essays were written by high school students (F(1, 69) = 5.150, p = 0.031).  The hypothesized effects for essay subject matter and gender of essayist did not approach statistical significance, nor did any of the examined interaction effects; it is clear from the data that graders are more likely to grade an essay as better if they believe the essay was written by someone with a higher level of education.

The Importance of Sexual Reputation in Evelina, or the History of a Young Lady's Entrance into the World
Kristen Herrick 
Student’s Major: English
Faculty Sponsor: Dr. Hilary Donatini, English
Frances Burney’s novel Evelina, or the History of a Young Lady’s Entrance into the World (1778) portrays the life of a young British girl and her experiences as she grows and learns about the world. Evelina’s decisions concerning her appearance at her first ball in London, her private ride with the predatory Sir Clement Willoughby in his chariot, and her encounter with two prostitutes in a public garden have the potential to ruin her reputation as a sexually naïve, yet well-bred and civilized young woman and affect her value in the eighteenth century marriage market. I engage with two critics who discuss the constraints placed on Evelina and other women during the eighteenth century. Judith Newton shows how Burney portrays the limitations of eighteenth-century women’s lives in the novel. Lynette Eckersley discusses gender roles and the expected proper conduct of a young woman during Evelina’s time as well, claiming that Burney challenges gender ideology and “undermines female gender identity.”  The critics, however, neglect to analyze Evelina’s behavior toward potential suitors in the context of their historical research. Although I draw on their research and build on their arguments, I address specific examples in the text that these critics do not. I claim, through an analysis of specific scenes, that although Evelina’s numerous social blunders tarnish her sexual reputation and impede her opportunities for marriage, her ultimate match Lord Orville sees beyond social convention to her true moral foundation.

The American Obesity Crisis: How to Keep Our Freedom and Our Health
Hallie Carrino
Student’s Majors: Political Science and History Major
Faculty Sponsor: Dr. Rene Paddags, History/Political Science
“Do I want a salad or a burger for lunch?” This question, along with many others similar to it, filter through the minds of Americans each day. What may seem as a choice left to the individual, outside entities such as television advertisements and governmentally backed dietary guidelines help to influence what foods Americans should eat that are necessary to live a healthy lifestyle. Even with these influences, the effects of obesity and chronic illnesses such as heart disease still ail U.S. citizens. With these ailments heavily prevalent in our society today, the question must be asked as to why individuals are still making these poor food choices. In my presentation, I will be providing an alternative reason as to why Americans do not eat good food: their innate desire for freedom. French aristocrat Alexis de Tocqueville examines within his book Democracy in America the different characteristics and values that allow Americans to thrive democratically. One of these is their desire for self-government. Another is their natural draw towards all things easy and convenient.  I will thus be juxtaposing the democratic individual’s desire for self-government, as described by Tocqueville, to the democratic individual’s ability to choose for themselves what foods they should consume. With this comparison, I will be working to show why governmental organizations and the marketing strategies of food industry giants cannot fully succeed in convincing Americans on what they should eat because of their desire for the freedom to choose for themselves.

Constant Speed or Constant Effort: Which is the More Efficient Way to Run?
Joseph Scott Glorioso 
Student’s Majors: Mathematics and Chemistry
Faculty Sponsor: Dr. Gordon Swain, Mathematics
The problem examined was whether it is more beneficial to run 5000 meters at constant speed or at constant effort while minimizing the time.  In order to determine this, a model was developed to calculate the oxygen used (VO2) due to running itself, to varying winds, and to varying inclines for an average sized runner.  The model, based on human data from literature, takes an input of runner’s speed, wind speed, and incline and gives an output of volume of oxygen consumed.  Using a simple conversion, VO2 was then converted to Calories expended. Starting with a baseline Calorie target at each of several wind speeds, comparing the runner’s time while running at constant effort and constant speed led to the conclusion that energy can be used more efficiently running at constant effort for a distance of 5000 meters.  Varying the incline has very little effect on the results and does not alter the overall outcome that it is more efficient to run at constant effort.

Is Disney Art?
Benjamin Isaiah Black 
Student’s Major: Theatre
Faculty Sponsor: Dr. Teresa Durbin-Ames, Theatre
There is no denying that the films released by the Walt Disney Animation Studios have left an incredible impression on audiences all over the world. Beginning with Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (William Cottrell, 1937), these movies have given us memorable stories, likeable characters, catchy songs, and impressive visuals. There are certainly other largely successful movies the animation studio released, such as Cinderella (Clyde Geronimi, 1950), The Lion King (Roger Allers and Rob Minkoff, 1994), and Frozen (Chris Buck and Jennifer Lee, 2013). While these movies gained great commercial success and are undeniably entertaining, are they artistic? Are these films meant to evoke emotions, or to divert attention and amuse audiences? How strong do the stories, characters, and animation represent the themes and messages of these films? The purpose is to explain that while these films are entertaining, they should also be seen as art. Defining both terms “entertainment” and “art,” different Disney animated films will be examined in order to explain why they are artistic. The animation creates a specific atmosphere and mood for each film through its designs, and colors, and detailed backgrounds. The themes are relatable to the human experience, thus making them empathetic to audiences. These and other elements of Disney animated films give them an artistic edge.

Beatbox Flute: An Analysis of Greg Pattillo’s 3 Beats for Beatbox Flute
Don Roger Haught 
Student’s Major: Music Education
Faculty Sponsors: Dr. Thomas Reed, Music and Prof. Jane Berkner, Music
In 2006, Greg Pattillo’s “beatboxing flute” video went viral, making his rendition of the theme from “Super Mario Brothers” famous. Pattillo’s style incorporates traditional flute playing as well as the vocal imitation of other instruments, particularly drums. In 2011, Pattillo was commissioned by the National Flute Association to compose a work for their annual High School Competition, entitled Three Beats for Beatbox Flute.  The three-movement work for solo flute features beatbox techniques and voice, making it one of the most revolutionary 21st century works written for the flute.  The presentation will include a brief overview of the flute’s extended techniques, a brief history of Greg Pattillo’s “beatbox flute” style, an explanation of beatbox flute technique, and a performance of Three Beats for Beatbox Flute.

Pedagogy of Vanitas
Rachel Yaeger, Hannah Thome, Shauna Spiez, Dana Reed, Emily Minns, David Truesdell, and Kara Mewhinney 
Students’ Majors: Art Education (RY); Art Education (HT); Art Education and Fine Arts (SS); Art Education (DR); Art Education (EM); Art Education (DT); Art Education (KM)
Faculty Sponsor: Prof. Priscilla Roggenkamp, Art
We researched the art of vanitas still lifes and the opportunity they present to open up secondary classrooms to new types of pedagogy. In a typical art classroom, a still life is set up as a tool to increase observational skills; however, this method of instruction sometimes does not engage students on a personal level. The seventeenth-century vanitas paintings combine symbology and religion to teach morality through detailed compositions. In the art classroom, vanitas paintings can be used to create personal connections between history and content. Vanitas paintings present teachers with a great opportunity to transform their classrooms into a student-centered learning environment through inviting students to create compositions using their own symbols. Our research suggests that content-laden art such as the vanitas paintings can also encourage higher-level thinking skills. When presented with the opportunity to take charge of their own education, students will readily push deeper into their art and their works’ content. We will present the research gathered from historical study as well as contemporary educational theories. This will include both the significant elements of vanitas and benefits that stem from having a student-centered classroom.

Video Game Perspective and Physiological Stress
Sara Lautzenhiser 
Student’s Major: Psychology
Faculty Sponsor: Dr. Diane B. V. Bonfiglio, Psychology
The popularity of video games makes the subject an important topic for research, especially since playing these games can have detrimental effects. Past research has shown that violent video games can cause a great deal of stress on the person playing the game (Hasan, Begue, & Bushman, 2013). While there has been research on stress and video games before, there is limited literature examining stress related to different play styles of video games. This study compares first person versus third person perspective game styles in hopes to give insight on whether one point of view is more physiologically distressing than the other. Fifty participants completed a video game task and a demographics sheet. During the task, participants were randomly assigned to play the same video game level in either first or third person point of view. Before and after the task, blood pressure was measured and a change score was calculated by subtracting the pre-task blood pressure value from the post-task blood pressure value. An independent samples t-test revealed no statistically significant difference in systolic blood pressure change score between participants who played in the first person compared to those who played in the third person (t(45) = 1.13, p = 0.27). There was also no statistically significant difference between groups in diastolic blood pressure change (t(45) = 1.04, p = 0.30). Results from this study could be interesting to players who may wish to know whether the play style they choose may have implications for their health.

“Always be closing”: Really Existing Capitalism in Glengarry Glenn Ross
Charlie Michel 
Student’s Major: Mathematics
Faculty Sponsor: Dr. Maura Grady, English
Capitalism’s ability to compromise the integrity and well-being of individuals across the economic spectrum has long been a target for criticism by playwrights and filmmakers. My presentation will examine the film Glengarry Glenn Ross (James Foley, 1992), the cinematic adaption of David Mamet’s 1984 Pulitzer Prize-winning play. Through an analysis of the dialogue and visual elements of the film, I will be discussing its critique of the manner in which American capitalism fosters an environment detrimental to the physical, emotional, and moral well-being of individuals. Glengarry Glenn Ross is set in a dingy real estate office that serves as a sort of microcosm of what Noam Chomsky would call “really existing capitalism,” a largely oligopolistic structure that exploits workers and consumers, snuffs out competition (often with government assistance), and exercises undue political influence thereby compromising the democratic process. Mamet and Foley challenge the myth perpetuated by free-market idealists that American capitalism is defined by freedom, opportunity, and fair competition. Foley’s cinematographic contributions bring Mamet’s screenplay to life in a poignant portrayal of the active suppression of opportunity and the irreparable emotional and moral degradation of the film’s main characters who vie for advancement in the company’s hierarchy. My claim is that the acting styles and visual presentation of the film bring to the forefront the destructive human impulses that define our economic system and must be restrained if we wish to achieve long-term societal prosperity.

FDR’s Dilemma: A Historical Documentary
Rachel Ann Gollhardt
Student’s Major: Journalism and Digital Media
Faculty Sponsor: Dr. David McCoy, Journalism and Digital Media
During the Second World War, President Franklin Roosevelt spared no effort in crushing the tyrannical Nazi regime. However, liberation of the Jewish concentration and death camps appeared to have been a lesser priority to him. Through historical research shown in a documentary format, this study examined the decisions he made to help the Jews suffering under the control of the Nazis. Historians argue that more could have been done to help the Jews and end their suffering. Roosevelt did help in ways such as instituting the war refugee board and concentrating on ending the war thereby liberating the camps. In the presentation I will show a clip from the documentary and talk about the recording, editing, and research processes. The processes included contacting the National Holocaust Museum’s team of experts, followed by traveling to Washington D.C. to conduct interviews as well as recording video of national monuments and the Museum. Through the research phase for the documentary, numerous archival videos, articles, photographs, primary sources and secondary sources were collected. The Museum’s archives were searched for primary source material of FDR speeches and wartime footage. Historians and Holocaust experts from multiple universities were interviewed to get their view on the topic.

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