“Bonnie’s Bathtub”
Lauren Schiely
Faculty Sponsor: Susan Guiher Huff, English

I plan to read a piece of my own creative work, a seven-page fiction short story entitled “Bonnie’s Bathtub.” I looked to less conventional sources of inspiration for this piece; a fellow classmate and I wrote down several potential first sentences and exchanged them. I was most inspired by “The bathtub worked well.” The story is about a middle-aged woman taking a bubble bath. She anticipates the bath for weeks, even purchases a brand new bathtub and pampers herself to the best of her ability—until she realizes that it is not everything she had hoped it would be. She sleeps through her bath and all of the problems she had outside the bathroom—low self-esteem, isolation, and marital issues—are still there long after the bathwater has turned cold and all of the suds have melted. The sanctuary she had hoped to find within that bath she later finds within herself.

Machiavelli’s Justice: The Necessity of Torture
Stacey Sadowski
Faculty Sponsor: Jeffrey Sikkenga, History & Political Science

The political thought of Niccolo Machiavelli is compared to the thought of earlier thinkers such as Thomas Aquinas and Aristotle. Where the ancients and the medievals believed nations should be just in order to achieve the highest goods that men are capable of, Machiavelli suggested that this was an impossible task that would ruin anyone who pursued it. Instead, men should attempt to acquire what they desire as long as it does not harm them. When men use their virtue to acquire these things, they are justly due them. This problem is relevant to modern times as every nation must develop an understanding of justice as well as what it must do in order to survive. This study will culminate in an exploration of how a nation that considers itself just understands torture. Aquinas believed that the good of the individual was never in conflict with the good of society. Thus, when a nation must do something evil to someone, it puts two goods in conflict, and good, properly understood, never conflicts itself. This action must be unjust. Machiavelli believes good is defined by necessity. If it is necessary to security, it is good. Thus, torture that preserves the nation is good. This presentation will discuss these two philosophies, and an argument will be presented for a just nation that can practically survive.

Marley and Me by John Grogan
Courtney Long
Faculty Sponsor: Deleasa Randall-Griffiths, Communication Arts

Storytelling has been used since the beginning of time to relay messages and tell the history of our cultures. Throughout time, the ways in which we tell these stories has changed and adapted to our present lifestyle. When deciding how I was going to portray an excerpt from John Grogan’s novel Marley and Me I wanted to be sure that my audience could mentally see what I was presenting to them. I think physical and nonverbal cues are incredibly important in any sort of communication so I try to be sure my facial expressions are always consistent as well as the miming I do to show the actions I am describing. Underneath it all is the idea that I am taking the story of someone else (Grogan) and spreading it to others who may have never read his novel as well as doing it in a way that they have never experienced it before. My presentation is intended to spark the audience’s interest in animals, reading, and the ancient art of storytelling.

Information Seeking Differences among Fashion-Opinion Leaders, Fashion-Conscious Consumers, and the General Population
Cassie Catalano
Faculty Sponsor: David Vanata, Family & Consumer Sciences

It is known that information searching is a fundamental part of consumer behavior. Several researches have been performed on fashion opinion leaders’ and fashion-conscious consumers’ tendencies to seek out fashion. However no research has been performed on what information sources are used the most among different fashion groups and if there are differences in the amount of information seeking each group completes. This study identifies the differences in information seeking for general information and fashion information among fashion-opinion leaders, fashion-conscious consumers, and the general population. Participants were tested to check what fashion group they identify with out of the three groups. Then comparisons were made between each fashion group on the total number of general-information and fashion information sources that each fashion group used. A convenience sample of 253 people involved in a sorority or enrolled in a Family and Consumer Science class at Ashland University completed the questionnaire. Results support several of the predicted hypotheses. Fashion-opinion leaders used the most general- and fashion-information sources, and the general population utilized the least amount of information sources, with fashion-conscious consumers falling in between the two groups. The findings of this study give marketers a better idea of what information sources each fashion group utilizes before purchasing a product.

New Wine in Old Wineskins: Neo-Monasticism and the Future of the Church in America
Michael Minczeski
Faculty Sponsor: David C. Aune, Religion

Within the past few decades, groups of Christians from all denominations have been banding together to form what are commonly called “Neo-Monastic” communities. Located mainly in urban centers, their aim is to return to a more legitimate and authentic Christian lifestyle, one focused outwardly on the marginalized, needy and forgotten. These groups hope to renew the church of the West, which has lost its potent relevancy in the throes of modernity and secularism. After gleaning the monastic traditions of old, those of Benedict and Francis, Dominic and Basil, these Neo-Monastics have found in history an indelibly lasting ethos and philosophy. The traditional monastic forms preserved the church’s vibrancy for centuries. However, can these groups of progressive Christians do the same for the modern church? Beginning with a brief history of the development of early monasticism, its practices and theology, and continuing into the modern age with “new monasticism,” the modern is contrasted with the old in order to delve into the future of religion in America.


Not That We Care: A Performance by The Wingnuts
Aaron Hill, Trent Kimball, Dan Shade, Chris Simmons, Jim Slike
Faculty Sponsor: Scott Garlock, Music

We will be performing an original composition by our bassist/drummer, sophomore Aaron Hill for jazz combo. The group performing will be Ashland University’s top jazz combo, The Wingnuts. The Wingnuts perform every week at Monte B’s on Wednesdays from 8:30-11:30 p.m. and won an outstanding band award at the Williamstown Jazz Festival last May. Aaron’s composition seamlessly blends jazz harmonies with a funk groove.

A Study of Violent and Pacifist Resistance in Liberation Theology
Christina Erikson
Faculty Sponsor: Craig Hovey, Religion

This study was undertaken in order to better understand controversial aspects of liberation theology and explore possible continuing relevancy for Christendom today. The presence of violence and the problems it poses for liberation theology is the major issue addressed. The study will attempt to offer new insights or lessons for the Church through its critique of religious violence. Research included analyzing works by influential liberation theologians, engaging with the histories of Oscar Romero and Ernesto Cardenal, and using the Gospels and pacifist theologians to formulate a response to violence in liberation theology. The study shows that there is strong evidence that would support pacifism and denounce violence in Christian movements and theology. The Christian arguments for nonviolence are exemplified in the work of John Howard Yoder and Daniel Bell. By interpreting the work of Archbishop Romero in light of these claims I propose that his witness as a nonviolent liberationist provides the right example of a theologically, biblically, and eschatologically correct way of doing liberation theology. The results of this study imply that there is a serious call to nonviolent resistance that Christians must be prepared to answer, which presents serious challenges to our worldview and concept of true Christian discipleship.

Hand Washing in Preschools
Kristin DiMarco
Faculty Sponsor: David Vanata, Family & Consumer Sciences

Studies have shown that there is a low level of effective hand hygiene in the general population. It is thought that educating children when they are at a younger age may aid in the change to society’s hand-washing habits. The overall goal was to find the most effective way in which to teach preschool-aged children about hand washing and how to maintain what has been learned. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of three educational handwashing interventions also focusing on differences in gender; it was evaluated using a hand scale and germ simulator lotion to measure. A pretest was done measuring a control and treatment group to show a baseline for the study. Three different educational hand-washing lessons were taught to the treatment group at one week intervals as well as an evaluation for each lesson after one week. No lessons were taught to the control group, only an initial test and end of study test. Results of this study showed significant improvement of the treatment group after three interventions (p < .0001). There were no significant differences between genders for any of the three lessons; the final post-test evaluation between the groups had a p value of .102 which is also not significant. Overall, this study observed that educational hand-washing lessons in a preschool classroom are effective for either gender in improving the hand-washing habits of children.

What is Urinetown?
Mark Maruschak
Faculty Sponsor: Teresa Durbin-Ames, Theatre

What is Urinetown? I was posed this question at the first production meeting of Urinetown: The Musical. As a lighting designer, my job was to answer that question by using light to create the atmosphere and portray to the audience how Urinetown should look. When I completed my first lighting design in November of 2008 for Crimes of the Heart, my job was to create a realistic setting. This new lighting design differs in all aspects of that previous undertaking because my job was to develop a metaphysical place. In order to create a metaphysical place, you must create an atmosphere that can be viewed in multiple perspectives but still keep every audience member’s perspective connected in some fashion so that the material discussed in the musical is still understood. This was my challenge. My method was to create four main atmospheres which consisted of Amenity #9, the street at night, Cladwell’s office, and the sewer for the secret hideout. After I established those settings, I broke every song into its own “world” in which the actors are separated from the established setting. I then used color, intensity, and shadow to display every emotion portrayed in the song. When the song ended, the lights would return to the established setting and the show would move forward. This would give the audience that feel of a metaphysical world and still be able to know where and when the characters are located in the show.

McClellan’s Alma: George B. McClellan’s Understanding of the Crimean as the Key to His Peninsula Campaign and Historical Misrepresentation
Kevin Kearns
Faculty Sponsor: Peter Schramm, History & Political Science

George Brinton McClellan is one of the most controversial and misunderstood characters in Civil War history. Historians have been confused by his actions during the Peninsula Campaign. In order to properly understand McClellan’s actions, one must enter into the mind of the Young Napoleon. By understanding McClellan’s studies at West Point, his experiences during the Mexican War, and most importantly his understanding of the Crimean War, one will be enlightened as to his intentions during the Peninsula Campaign. The lessons that McClellan expressed in his Official Report to Congress line up perfectly with his actions on the Peninsula. This understanding has clearly been muddled by the three factions that developed following the war—Lost Cause interpreters, the radicals, and reconciliationists. This thesis shows how typical interpretations of McClellan’s actions on the Peninsula have been intentionally misunderstood for political reasons. It also calls into question general understandings of Lincoln as commander-in-chief and thus demands an in-depth understanding of both men, their military thought, and their relationship with one another.


Felt: A Reading of Selected Poems
Logan Fry
Faculty Sponsor: Susan Guiher Huff, English

I will be reading a selection of poems from my poetry chapbook, Felt, which is the product of four years of work and revision through Ashland University’s Creative Writing program. In the chapbook I seek to explore the material from which this world is composed and the ways we strive to make ourselves felt within it. I draw inspiration from fleeting, indefinable moments that leave a strong impression, and I set out to reveal it (both to myself and to others) through ideas and associations, images and metaphors. The majority of my poetry is written in free verse, which I prefer in part because it allows for an enhanced degree of immediacy between the experience/idea that sparked the poem and the conveyance of that experience/idea. Yet my preference for free verse is not at the expense of the the poems’ sound— I view sound devices as an essential component of poetry, and much of the process of revising my work is concerned with uniting the sounds of each line with the meaning of that line. The poems that I have chosen to read exemplify these qualities of my work and seek to demonstrate the skills I have learned in my time of study at Ashland University. The selection includes: “Suits,” a poem in six parts, where suits are the moods we project and the fears we seek to hide within; “MOON, THE,” a mythological howl at false moons and false gods; and “Felt,” the chapbook’s title poem, where the verb is posed as the fabric from which this world is cut.

A Stinky Situation
Abby Kacsandi
Faculty Sponsor: Deleasa Randall-Griffiths, Communication Arts

Storytelling is the earliest form of relaying information. For thousands of years storytelling has been a way to pass history and information from generation to generation. Without storytelling much of what we know of history would have been lost. Storytelling is also a way for people to
relate and communicate to one another. In my story I will be telling of a personal experience I had as an aunt and how it shaped me and my view on being an aunt and a parent. It tells a comical story of an afternoon spent with some of my nieces and the crazy events that took place. I think that the use of movements and gestures can make or break a story and it is important to use the whole area you are given to allow your audience to enter the scene with you and really get caught up in the story. I also like to change the rate and tone of the performance. Doing this helps to differentiate between characters and change the mood of the performance. The purpose of this performance is to entertain the audience and give them some insight into the world of storytelling.

Effects of Ecotourism on the Environment: Ecuador
Janna Pearson
Faculty Sponsor: Douglas Dawson, Biology & Toxicology

Ecotourism is quickly becoming a booming business and a popular way for socially responsible travelers to enjoy and work towards the conservation of the environment. The primary objective of this study was to measure the impact of ecotourism on the environment, specifically its effect on predation of leaves in relation to their location on or nearby a trail. A total of 74 leaf samples were collected from three families of trees—Violaceae, Cecropiaceae and Bonbacaceae—and analyzed using Digimizer. The results showed that predation is higher in Varzea forests than in Terra Firme forests, and that within ten meters of the trail, on average 88.22% of the leaf was left intact, whereas ten meters or more from the trail the leaves were more heavily predated, with only 79.41% of the leaf left intact. This data suggests that it is advantageous for a plant to grow closer to a trail through the rainforest. All samples were collected in March 2009 in the tropical rainforest at Tiputini Biodiversity Station in northwestern Ecuador.

Smorgasbord of Primes
Todd Polak
Faculty Sponsor: Thomas Dence, Mathematics & Computer Science

Primes are the subject of interest for many people and the subject of my research. In order to research primes to the extent that was needed I required the help of a mathematical program, Maple. The subjects that are going to be addressed are the separation of primes using modulo 4, modulo 3, and modulo 6. The next topic is the summation of the reciprocal of the primes, which involves summing to infinity the reciprocals of the primes. The final topic is the summation of the reciprocals of the twin primes. Twin primes are primes that the difference between the primes is two. An example of the first couple are 3 and 5; 5 and 7; and 11 and 13. This is exploratory research on problems that were posed in the math world.


Identification of Circadian Clock-Associated Proteins in Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus nidulans
Wendy Dria
Faculty Sponsor: Andrew Greene, Biology & Toxicology

Circadian rhythms are daily fluctuations in behaviors such as spore formation in fungi. These rhythms can free-run in the absence of temporal cues with approximately 24-hour periods, and they are controlled internally by protein-based oscillators. Circadian oscillators enable organisms to synchronize with their environments and anticipate daily events. Circadian rhythms have been extensively studied in the fungus Neurospora crassa, and in N. crassa, rhythms are dependent on the FREQUENCY protein. Aspergillus spp. exhibit circadian rhythms in spore development and gene expression; however, they lack the FREQUENCY protein found in Neurospora. In this project, we identify proteins in Aspergillus spp. that cycle in abundance under constant conditions with the objective of identifying oscillator components regulating daily activity. To identify potential oscillator proteins in Aspergillus, cultures were synchronized by transferring them from the light to the dark, and the cultures were allowed to free-run. Samples were harvested at subjective dawn, noon, dusk, and midnight. Total protein was extracted from mycelia and subjected to 2-D gel electrophoresis. Proteins that varied in abundance over the day were isolated from the gel and identified using MALDI-TOF peptide mass fingerprinting. Proteins identified include GAPDH (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), PGK (phosphoglycerate kinase), and an ortholog of Schizosaccharomyces pombe Sfc4. To confirm protein expression rhythms, free running cultures were harvested at 4-hour intervals and RNA was extracted from the mycelia, quantified, and run on a gel to confirm quality. Real time PCR will be used to confirm protein oscillations by analyzing rhythms in transcript abundance for each gene.

Boycotts for Liberty: How the Non-Importation Movement Shifted Women’s Place in Colonial Society
Hallie Wolff
Faculty Sponsor: John Moser, History & Political Science

In the years leading up to the outbreak of the American Revolution, many colonial leaders called for the boycott of British goods in an effort to force British Parliament to repeal colonial taxes. The success of the non-importation movement was contingent on the cooperation of colonial women. Studies have been conducted on the years leading up to the American Revolution and on women in colonial society, but little has been done on women’s participation in the colonial boycotts. Works by prominent historians such as T.H. Breen and Carol Berkin were studied as well as primary sources from the era to analyze the changes the non-importation movement brought to colonial women. Women were key participants in the non-importation movement. Their participation brought them something they never had access to before: a voice in politics. Through refusal to purchase certain goods, colonial women were able to voice political opinions without stepping outside their duties as a wife, mother, and daughter. The small political freedoms women gained through this era did not lead to any major changes in the political rights of women, though. At the conclusion of the American Revolution and non-importation movement, women’s lives resumed as they were before, showing that the political role women undertook during the various boycotts was not continued afterwards.

Mixture Toxicity of Atrazine and Permethrin
Phillip Wages
Faculty Sponsor: Mason Posner & Andrew Trimble, Biology & Toxicology

The toxic effect of pesticides on non-target organisms is a major concern, especially when used in areas for agricultural purposes since runoff of commonly used pesticides is carried into water sources. Even though many studies have focused on the effect that individual pesticides have on non-target organisms, this is not the most complete method to understand the risk pesticides pose. Pesticides are commonly applied in mixtures to protect crops from multiple threats, for instance herbicides are commonly combined with insecticides to reduce the presence of harmful weeds and pests in the same application. Two of the most common pesticides used are triazines and pyrethroids. With this in mind newly hatched zebrafish (Danio rerio) were used as a model in a mixture toxicity water-only test with atrazine, a triazine, and permethrin, a pyrethroid. Preliminary sub-tests were administered to determine the EC50 of atrazine using mobility as an endpoint, and the LC50 of permethrin. These preliminary tests suggest that atrazine hinders growth in zebrafish and can cause infertility in eggs in addition to affecting the ability to swim. Future experiments will test whether permethrin is lethal at low concentrations. It is possible that atrazine will potentiate the lethality of permethrin; however, additive or non-additive effects are probable too. Since both pesticides have different modes of action they are not expected to act synergistically; however, due to the known hormonal effects atrazine causes and expected high lethality of permethrin it will be important to determine their combinatory effect.

Urinetown the Musical: A Directing Experience
Cassie Haines
Faculty Sponsor: Teresa Durbin-Ames, Theatre

Urinetown the Musical is a light-hearted, upbeat, musical comedy that was chosen as part of AU’s theatre season. I have undertaken the role of co-directing Urinetown with Dr. Teresa Durbin-Ames. My purpose for this project was to experience a professional directorial setting with the guidance of a professor in order to enhance my knowledge and understanding of the directing process. Ultimately, I wanted to create a fully realized theatrical production. To fulfill this purpose I was involved with the entire production process including concept development, auditions and casting, collaborations with design, and rehearsals. There was constant communication with actors, technicians, designers, choreographer, musical director, and advising co-director. Throughout this project I have learned how to apply my knowledge as a director and communicate clearly with all involved in the process. In conclusion, co-directing Urinetown successfully enhanced my knowledge as a student and a director. The play was fully realized and presented to the public February 19, 20, 21, 26, and 27.


Synthesis and Thermal Properties of Resorcinarene- and Calixarene-Core Star Polymers
Katie Moga
Faculty Sponsor: Perry Corbin, Chemisty

Polylactides have been used in a variety of applications, including their use in drug delivery devices, surgical sutures, and packaging films. However, architectural diversity within this class of polymers is limited, which, in turn, somewhat limits the applications of the polymers. In an attempt to counter these problems, we have recently synthesized a series of multi-armed, resorcinarene- and calixarene-core polylactide star polymers. Sn(II)-catalyzed, ring-opening polymerizations of DL-lactide using multifunctional initiators have yielded four- to eight-armed star polymers with wide-ranging molecular weights. This presentation will focus on the thermal properties of these star polymers, which have been investigated by differential scanning calorimetery. As expected, the glass transition temperatures, melting points, and percent crystallinity of the star polymers increased as molecular weight increased. However, it was seen that star polylactides had significantly lower percent crystallinities and melting points than their linear counterparts. Additionally, annealing low molecular weight star polylactides at varied times suggests that the percent crystallinity of these polymers can be controlled. Progress towards the synthesis and study of new twelvearmed resorcinarene-core polymers will also be discussed.

 “I’ll Be Seeing You” Vocal Quartet
Bryon Black, Alison Savitsky, James Slike, Alyssa Slotterbeck
Faculty Sponsor: Marla Butke, Music

In preparation for Alison Savitsky’s senior recital, a vocal jazz group consisting of Alyssa Slotterbeck, Jim Slike and Bryon Black was formed. The debut performance of the group was such a success that they were invited to reprise their efforts for the school’s Ohio College Music Educator’s Association chapter. The group will be performing Fain and Kahal’s “I’ll Be Seeing You” from the 1938 musical, Right This Way, as arranged by New York Voices’ Darmon Meader. When they started working on this piece, they quickly realized each group member’s strengths and weaknesses and built working relationships that helped them grow stylistically and technically. Collectively, this group had very little experience with singing vocal jazz, and this afforded them the opportunity to rely heavily on their musical instincts. This experience was not only beneficial to their improvement as singers, but also as future educators, as now they are much more comfortable with approaching challenging pieces that may fall outside of their comfort zone.

The Song in Performance
Antoinette Kula
Faculty Sponsors: Teresa Durbin-Ames & Fabio Polanco, Theatre

In Musical Theatre, the song carries the height of emotion and allows for development of character within the show. My project has taken on the role to uncover these emotions and characters through the use of songs from the time of Sondheim (1970s) to that of the current music of composers such as Jeanine Tesori (1990s-2000s). Sondheim’s “With So Little to Be Sure of ” from the musical, Anyone Can Whistle takes a look at what had been, what could have been, and what could be in a relationship of love. The ballad is a slow piece of music using much emotion; usually love, through its beautiful melody and words. In contrast, the up-tempo piece is used to showcase character and fun in a musical. Tesori’s “Gimme Gimme” is a comic up-tempo piece from the musical Thoroughly Modern Millie. With its fast feel and character work, this song becomes just about the opposite of Sondheim’s, though still surrounding the same theme of love. To uncover the significance in each song, I utilize the tools made relevant by my practice of music theory and that of the acting theorist Stanislavsky. The ultimate goal of the project was to showcase who I am as a performer, what I have accomplished, and how I can utilize this knowledge in the future as an actor. Results are seen through a heightened performance where both the audience and the actor are connected as humans and to the character when the song is in performance.

“Adieu, notre petite table” by Jules Massenet from the opera, Manon, and “The Tale of the Oyster” by Cole Porter
Alyssa Slotterbeck
Faculty Sponsor: Stephanie Sikora, Music

In French, the title “Adieu, notre petite table,” is translated as “Farewell, our little table.” In order to perform this piece, intense study of the language and the original context is necessary. The French language is full of emotion and beauty, and in order to portray this emotion to the audience, a thorough study of the nuances, English translation, and details is necessary to properly portray the character. This piece, originally from the opera Manon (which debuted in 1884), features the title character in an emotional, moving, and lyrical aria about her love for a man that she must leave. Frustrated by her own frailty, yet entranced by a new life of riches, she sings of their former life together. In contrast, “The Tale of the Oyster,” written in 1929 for Cole Porter’s Fifty Million Frenchmen, is a charming and witty example of the early age of Musical Theater. This piece follows the journey of an oyster from his desire for greatness to his return to the sea.


“Lookout” by Robert Dick: Solo Flute Performance
Lyndsey Riegel
Faculty Sponsor: Thomas Reed, Music

“Lookout” is an advanced level composition for solo flute. The piece uses modern flute techniques, including singing through the flute while playing, overtones, and percussive effects with the fingers. The piece has musical themes in a rock-and-roll vein, but the music also uses classical and avante-garde techniques. The piece is a challenge because of the unfamiliar techniques used, especially sections in which the flute, which normally plays a single musical line, is required to produce two sounds at once.

Dangerous Jezebels: A Novel
Tory Lowe
Faculty Sponsor: Joe Mackall, English

Being a fiction writer primarily, and having always harbored a dream of writing a novel, I chose this project for my thesis. Titled Dangerous Jezebels, it is a semi-autobiographical coming-of-age novel about a teenager who moves in with rural relatives after his mother’s unexpected death. Having lived in the city with his single-parent mother, the boy is astonished to experience colorful locals, a charming neighbor boy whom he befriends, and especially his relatives. Dubbed the ‘Dangerous Jezebels,’ the boy’s grandmother, great-grandmother, and great aunt are a wholly different kind of family for this boy, and it is his relationship with them that allows him to weather his mother’s death, boredom, loneliness, and curiosity about his absent father.

Investigation of Carbon Wire X-pinch Backlighting for Pulsed Power Driven Exploding Wire Experiments
Sean McGraw*
Faculty Sponsor: Rodney Michael, Physics

Exploding wire experiments have many important applications, including inertial confinement fusion research and laboratory astrophysical plasmas. Understanding the dynamics of wire arrays is crucial to these applications. Details of wire ablation remain somewhat unclear, which led to uncertainties in scaling to higher drive currents. The ablated coronal plasma is typically investigated using x-rays in the 3-5 keV range, however much of this plasma is highly transparent to such radiation, and information about the dynamics of coronal plasma above 1019 cm-3 is therefore lacking. A possible candidate for lower energy radiography is the carbon x-pinch, which produces x-rays below 1 keV. Experiments are conducted on GenASIS, a linear transformer driver, to study carbon x-pinches for wire array x-ray backlighting. This pulsed power system drives ~250 kA into a short circuit and ~200 kA into an x-pinch load. X-pinches formed from 20 μm titanium and 10 μm stainless steel and nickel wires are compared to the carbon system to provide more insight into the evolution and structure of exploding wires. Information from these comparisons will feed directly into the ongoing discussion of wire ablation at high currents.
* This research was conducted along with individuals from outside of Ashland University: S.C. Bott and F.N. Beg, of the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California San Diego.

The Design and Implementation of Real-World Projects for Real Clients: The Westfield Group Project
John Bentley, Kimberly Hohl, Kameron Perry, Andrew Rowe, Matthew Schwan
Faculty Sponsor: Iyad Ajwa, Computer Science

In this presentation, we will describe our experience with a real-world project that will be completed to partially fulfill the requirements of a one-semester software development course at Ashland University. The project aims at developing a web-based database system for Westfield
Group. Currently, the company has multiple dated Access databases. The company would like to move away from these old databases because the company doesn’t plan to continue to develop the skill sets necessary to support them. As such, Westfield Group would like us to rewrite two of their databases: The Risk Control Database and The Premium Audit Database using current technology and languages. The Premium Audit Database performs calculations to computer premiums and allows Westfield Insurance to pull up old audits to add comments and make updates. The Risk Control Database stores the loss-control-related data used by the Commercial Lines Underwriters in the company. The current Access database application keeps track of the number of tickets assigned to each field representative and its current status. This project involves learning any languages or applications needed to work on the databases, communicating effectively with Westfield Insurance employees and teammates, and following the Software Development Lifecycle until the project is completed. This project will allow Westfield Group the opportunity to get their problem solved without using employees’ time and gives our team the chance to get valuable hands-on experience with rewriting and modifying databases.


The World Within
Claire Kereky
Faculty Sponsor: Charles Caldemeyer, Art

My paintings and prints are self-portraits of my inner self and my view of the world around me. I seek to create visual art that addresses issues like faith, inadequacy, fear, aggression, and idleness to narrate the parts of my life with which I struggle. Through my work, I aim to evoke a sense of camaraderie between myself and the viewers. As an artist, I am able to take advantage of my talents by expressing visually what I feel emotionally; knowing this, I create personal work while at the same time aiming to make work that is visually exciting. My medium is oil paint, copper intaglio prints, color reduction wood, or linoleum prints. My artistic style is very expressive; the color, line and forms that I use appeal to the emotional senses of the viewer. I use bright colors and dramatic lighting elements in my work to give my work a dramatic hue and appeal to the emotional nature of my subject. My art is how I can best describe my life and relationship with the world.

The Design and Implementation of Real-World Projects for Real Clients: The Home Hardware Inc. Project
John Bentley, Kimberly Hohl, Kameron Perry, Andrew Rowe, Matthew Schwan
Faculty Sponsor: Iyad Ajwa, Computer Science

In this presentation, we will describe our experience with a real-world project that has been completed to partially fulfill the requirements of a one-semester software development course at Ashland University. The project aimed at developing a web-based, e-commerce store for Home Hardware Inc. here in Ashland. The project has been completed in phases and emphasized team work while students were learning principles of software engineering. Using the group’s knowledge of HTML, PHP, JavaScript, and Ajax, students were able to craft an eBay site that met the demands of the company. The final product expresses that Home Hardware is more than just a hardware store and provides users access to their eBay storefront and service departments. This experience was important for the group because it allowed students involved to get valuable experience working on a real-world project for a professional company. The grand majority of most companies’ marketing today is web-based. Working on this project has given the team members real-world experience that would make them stand out from other people in the job-market.

Comparison of Mixture Toxicity for Mono-, Di-, and Tri-halogenated Acetonitrile Combinations
Daphne Guinn
Mentor: Douglas Dawson, Biology & Toxicology

Halogenated acetonitriles were tested alone and in binary mixtures to assess relationships between chemical structure and combined effect. Derivatives tested included mono (iodo, bromo, chloro), di (dibromo, dichloro) and tri (trichloro) forms. Toxicity was assessed at 15, 30 and 45 minutes of exposure with seven concentrations and a control (each duplicated). Some agents were tested as sham mixtures (i.e., the agent with itself), thereby serving as positive controls for dose-addition. Data analysis gave EC50, concentration-response curve slopes and time-dependent toxicity (TDT) values for each agent and mixture. Data were fit to sigmoid curves using the four-parameter logistic function and evaluated against predicted curves for dose-addition. Sham combinations were dose-additive, as judged by EC50 additivity quotient (EC50-AQ) values of about 1.0. Slope AQ values were also near 1.0. Mixture toxicity for true combinations varied. Dose-addition was observed for each timepoint with each of the three mono/mono combinations; wherein TDT and slope values were similar for each agent alone. Mixture toxicity of mono/di, mono/tri, di/di or di/tri combinations produced combined effects that varied, with some instances of apparent dose-addition and others that were clearly less-than dose-additive. Slopes of the concentration response curves and fit of the experimental mixture curves to predicted dose-additive curves at the EC25 and EC75 levels were useful in distinguishing between apparently dose-additive and dose-additive combinations versus when just EC50 data were considered. Slopes of the concentration-response curves should be considered in mixture toxicity testing as exemplified by results for the dibromo-dichloro and iododichloro combinations.

While There Is Time
Casey Snyder
Faculty Sponsor: Charles Caldemeyer, Art

I use the painting process as a metaphor for the process of living. As time moves our perceptions and thoughts do also. This parallels the layers of paint as an evolution of time by the overlapping images. We compare ourselves to one another because our lives are constantly overlapping with things and people around us. Time’s web of contact creates a cosmic connection to one another in some way or form. My work creates a path with conflicts along it, represented by overlapping images. The conflicts are images that happened before and after, making each piece a personal timeline portrait. New objects are made clear or are lost by the things around them. We exist because of the things before and after us; overlapping shows new replacing old or old prevailing. My pieces transcend time so you relate to the painting based on your own experiences. I relate gravity to the aspect of what events hold us back. The weaker the feel of gravity in my pieces shows freedom. My pieces depict a battle of success and failure that we connect to our past. I imply a narrative while letting viewers interpret their individual meaning. Immediacy in an image creates an illusion that makes a new reality. I follow the mood of the painting as it develops by allowing the painting to develop organically, in discrete layers of paint, which relate to and contrast with other layers. These paintings reconcile my inner world with my outer world.

Mixture Toxicity and Multiple Modes of Toxic Action: Direct-Acting Michael Acceptors with a Non-Polar Narcotic
Nicole Genco, Zach Il’Giovine
Faculty Sponsor: Douglas Dawson, Biology & Toxicology

Recent Microtox studies on the mixture toxicity of soft electrophiles have noted that the combined effect observed is affected by chemical reactivity, which affects its time-dependent toxicity (TDT). For slowly reacting agents, narcosis and reactive toxicity may both occur, giving multiple modes of toxic action. To study this further, four direct-acting Michael acceptors: p-benzoquinone (pBQ), 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (2HEA), diethyl maleate (DEM), and hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPM) were tested for reactivity with glutathione to determine relative reactivity rates. Each was tested for toxicity with the non-reactive, non-polar narcotic 3-methyl-2-butanone (3M2B). Acute toxicity was assessed at 15, 30 and 45 minutes of exposure, with seven concentrations and a control (each duplicated). Concentration-response data were fit to sigmoid curves using a four-parameter logistic function. Data were used to obtain time dependent toxicity (TDT) values and both additivity quotient (AQ) and independence quotient (IQ) values, wherein an EC50-AQ or EC50-IQ value of near 1.0 suggests dose-additive or independent combined effects, respectively. In addition to chemical reactivity, slopes of concentration- response curves and EC25-AQ (or IQ) and EC75-AQ (or IQ) values aided combined effects assessments. The very fast- (pBQ) and fast- (2HEA) reacting agents tested with 3M2B resulted in combined effects that were less-than dose-additive (i.e., EC50-AQ values from 1.10-1.22). The slow-reacting agent (DEM) gave an EC50-AQ value closer to dose-additive at 15-min (1.06), but this increased over time (1.13-1.21) as reactive toxicity became more prominent. For the very slow-reacting agent with 3M2B, dose-additive toxicity at 15-min (0.93) became greater than dose-additive at 30 (0.89) and 45 min (0.85).

Factors Influencing Course Enrollment of High School Family and Consumer Science Courses
Hilary Waugh
Faculty Sponsor: David Vanata, Family & Consumer Sciences

Academic considerations, personal considerations, and outside information sources were all examined in comparison to how they affect high school students’ decision to enroll, or not enroll, in family and consumer science (FCS) courses. Eighty-two students from one Ohio high school were surveyed (49 females and 33 males with mean age 15.8 years). Seventy-five percent of those students had previously taken FCS courses, whereas the others had never been enrolled. The results indicated that students who had previously taken FCS courses were more likely to see the value of the course as well as know the teachers better. The results also showed that if students were interested in FCS content they were more likely to enroll in a course than those who thought the content was valuable. The study also showed differences in terms of gender. Females were significantly more likely to enroll in FCS courses (p = .002), even though the majority of all students surveyed disagreed that boys do not enroll in FCS courses. Both genders also agreed on the value of FCS courses (p = .518). However, males were far less likely to recommend FCS courses to their friends and they reported to be far less interested in the content (p = .039). Together these results show that there are factors that are more influential than others. Future research is still needed on individual classes, but teachers can use the results of this study when attempting to increase enrollment in FCS classes in general.

Developing an Innovation Unit and Evaluating Outcomes
Theresa Lattner, Jill Snowden, Julia Treska*
Faculty Sponsor: Jacqueline Owens, Nursing

We composed a committee that created the Innovation Unit at Fairview Hospital, a Cleveland Clinic Hospital. The Innovation Unit is a specialized interdisciplinary medical-surgical unit used to trial, evaluate, and develop best practices in technology, nursing, interdisciplinary care, and medicine. In the Innovation Unit at Fairview Hospital, a best practice is trialed and approved by the staff. Then the unit helps other units build structure and process to implement the best practice. The goal is to disseminate these practices in the organization. A best practice can be a new piece of technology trialed by patients and nurses, a new program, teaching tool, or medical technique. We compare what is available on the market and have a consumer attitude when evaluating products and technology. The variety of patients admitted to this unit enhances its ability to trial innovations with great frequency. The staff on that unit is specially chosen to be innovators and must be willing to try new things and tolerate fast paced change. This has satisfied an interest in many novice nurses who like to be on the “cutting edge.” Outcomes data (some publically reported) is carefully monitored to see how innovations are received by staff and patients. The poster includes examples of innovations trialed by the unit (e.g., patient activity carts, blanket warmers, digital screens for patient education, a unit-based pharmacist) and preliminary data. Outcomes measured include Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) scores and patient-physician satisfaction, both of which have demonstrated improvement. This unit has been a great success and has improved efficiency in our organization.
* This research was conducted along with individuals from outside of Ashland University: Cheryl O’Malley and Kristine Adams of Fairview Hospital.

Web-based Strategies: Piloting a Simulated Public Health Clinical Experience
Evangeline Garcia, Rebecca Kennard, Debra Lewis, Susan Mercer, Mary Szostakowski
Faculty Sponsor: Jacqueline Owens, Nursing

This poster describes a web-based public health clinical experience of a simulated pandemic of avian influenza. Students completed the experience in a senior level public health course. The pilot was created to equal 24 of the required 50 course clinical hours. Remaining hours were completed via self-study experiences, a community and aggregate population assessment, and online seminars. Our experience included one seminar with a guest expert, two team activities to develop a public service message (PSA) and establish and respond to nursing priorities, and a summary discussion. Activities considered two time periods in the pandemic: the early investigational stage, before media reports occur, and about two months post-initial outbreak when U.S. infections are on the rise. The purpose of these activities was to provide a simulated clinical experience designed to familiarize students with nursing roles and decision-making related to public health. Specific activities we completed included a video-based introduction, readings, viewing of a documentary film, an online point of dispensing game, a public health department virtual tour, and student-directed team use of web-based tools such as GoogleDocs and Dim Dim. The poster presentation illustrates the student simulation experience, student created activities including the two PSAs (created via video image capture and webconferencing tools) and designated priority and response actions, actual student discussion related to teamwork using webbased tools, and our summative evaluation of the pilot experience.

Comparison of Temperature-Sensitive Fish αA-crystallins Identifies an Amino Acid Substitution Associated with Chaperone-like Activity and Thermal Stability
Amy Drossman, Jackie Skiba
Faculty Sponsor: Mason Posner, Biology & Toxicology

αA-Crystallin is an abundant protein in the vertebrate eye lens and a member of the small heat shock protein family (sHSPs). Members of this family exhibit chaperone-like activity and are capable of preventing aggregation of other proteins within the lens, which is one of the leading causes of human blindness. Previous work in our laboratory used six fish species differing in physiological temperature to identify several amino acids that appear to affect this protective chaperone-like activity. In this current study we used PCR techniques to alter three of the amino acids that were predicted to increase protective function in αA-crystallin. The chaperone-like activity of recombinant proteins containing each mutation was analyzed by measuring the mutants’ ability to prevent aggregation of chemically denatured lactalbumin. The first mutation, V62T, decreased thermal stability and increased chaperone-like activity compared to the wild type zebrafish protein. It is suggested that V62T affects the structural stability of β-sheets. The second mutation, C144S, did not alter thermal stability or chaperone-like activity between 20- 35°C, but showed minor elevated chaperone-like activity at 40°C. C144S is exposed at the domain surface and is expected to have a lesser effect on αA-crystallin stability. The third mutation, T148V, showed increased chaperone ability at 40°C. These data indicate that changes in single amino acid residues can partially account for the thermal adaptation of vertebrate αA-crystallins. This study validates a comparative evolutionary approach to analyzing the relationship between protein structure and function in sHSPs, a family involved in numerous human diseases.

Greenhouse Studies of the Allelopathic Properties of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
Kelly Harrison
Faculty Sponsor: Jeffrey Weidenhamer, Chemisty

Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) represses weed growth through exudation of the herbicidal compound sorgoleone. Redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroplexus L.) is known to be sensitive to sorghum. To assess the impact of sorghum allelochemicals on neighboring plant growth, two plant growth studies have been performed. A target-neighbor design was used in which differing densities of pigweed were planted around a single sorghum plant with shoot dry mass measured after 25 days. The expected result of resource competition would be that pigweed dry mass would decrease proportionately as the number of plants per pot increased. By contrast, allelopathic effects are most pronounced at low densities where the toxin dose per plant is highest. As expected, the greatest inhibition of pigweed growth occurred at low plant densities. In a second experiment, pigweed and velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medic.), a plant which is less sensitive to sorghum’s allelopathic effects, were grown in competition in containers with four sorghum plants established around a zone containing either four pigweed plants, four velvetleaf plants, or two of each. Half of the pots had barriers to keep the roots of the velvetleaf and pigweed separated from sorghum. Given the greater sensitivity of redroot pigweed to sorghum, it is expected that the competitive balance between velvetleaf and pigweed will be shifted when grown in contact with sorghum. Shoot dry mass was measured, and initial results confirm the hypothesis that pigweed is a better competitor with velvetleaf in the absence of root interactions with sorghum.


Holistic Development Through an Artistic Lifestyle
Joshua Risner
Faculty Sponsor: Charles Caldemeyer, Art

Although my work is influenced in part by great artists of the past like Pieter Bruegel, Hieronymus Bosch, and Master Bertram, it is primarily influenced by a contemporary artist, my mentor, Charles Caldemeyer. According to Caldemeyer, the artistic lifestyle is what lures him to create. To him, the artistic lifestyle is defined as a lifestyle of development. It is not a narrow development that is singular, but a holistic development that incorporates the intellect, senses, and imagination. It is a lifestyle that is dependent upon search and discovery which constantly refines and clarifies both his view of the outer reality of the world around him and the inner perceived world. Caldemeyer’s technical skills are also a reflection of his holistic development as an artist. While he is primarily a painter, he not only relies on a vast knowledge of all painting mediums to communicate his interpretation of life, but he also uses other mediums like printmaking and carpentry. A diverse understanding of many mediums allows him to communicate more effectively. Like my mentor, I have chosen an artistic lifestyle because of its developmental nature. For me, both search and discovery, along with versatile development of my craft, are fundamental to my work. Where I have chosen to expand on Caldemeyer’s work is in meditative spiritual qualities. In the tradition of iconographers and illuminators, I want my work to express an objective spiritual truth that radiates from it in a real way. This is obviously no minimal task and is not a goal that I can say I have obtained at this point. However, my work has signs of these qualities and shows progress towards my goal. At this point my work is successful and worth viewing not because it obtains my goal, but because it is tangible evidence of my unique individual artistic lifestyle and the pursuit of my goal.

iAshland: Student Life Application
Emilia Del Pino, Jeremy Mio, Thomas Valy
Faculty Sponsor: Iyad Ajwa, Computer Science

Although Ashland University is a small campus, there are many activities that make it hard for students to keep up with everything. With the increasing interrogation of both the iPhone and iPod Touch with students this problem can be solved. With a student life application for the iPhone/iPod Touch at the tip of most students’ hands, they never have to worry about not being up to date or missing out on any event the Ashland University campus has to offer. With that being the main purpose of this project (iAshland - Student Life Application), the application itself can also be used in a multitude of other useful ways. Ashland will now be available wherever a student may be with this new application. AU students will be able to navigate through a campus map using GPS technology complete with photos and other helpful information, keep up to date on all campus events, add current classes and to-do lists for homework and upcoming exams, access the AU directory to be able to tap to call/email/locate, find sport rosters and schedules, and stay connected with up-to-date student news. Important methods used for this application development include the use of multiple languages such as Objective C and Coca Touch. These languages are combined with the tools of the UI builder and Foundation Framework to create one fully functioning application.

Green Fluorescent Protein-Labeled Escherichia coli: An Effective Tool to Enhance Visibility of Small Daphnia When Monitoring Behavioral Responses in Tank Experiments
Rachel Day
Faculty Sponsors: Patricia Saunders & Andrew Greene, Biology

Chemical cues released from both plants and animals are thought to impact the behavior of Daphnia. Daphnia dentifera, native to Sites Lake, OH (40oN, 82oW) is thought to alter its behavior when exposed to kairomones from planktivorous fish or similar signals from aquatic plants. The small size of these organisms (<1.2mm) impedes the ability to effectively monitor their behavior in experimental tanks. To enhance their visibility, a method was developed in which Daphnia were fed transgenic Escherichia coli labeled with the Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP). GFPlabeled E. coli fluoresce when exposed to UV light, and such fluorescence is observable microscopically using a fluorescent microscope or macroscopically using a black light. Initial studies revealed that D. dentifera do consume the GFP-labeled E. coli, but that gut fullness varies; we are conducting further experiments to establish conditions that optimize animal visibility in aquaria using this approach. This method may prove to be an essential tool for future studies analyzing the behavior demonstrated by Daphnia dentifera and other small species.

Love’s Got Nothing To Do with It: the Effects of Romantic Commitment and Love on Sacrificial Behavior
Jennifer Seda, Blair Suppes
Faculty Sponsor: Brent Mattingly, Psychology

Romantic relationships are based on love and commitment (e.g., Rusbult, 1980; Sternberg, 1987). Previous studies have found that commitment is the main predictor of individuals’ willingness to sacrifice (Powell & Van Vugt, 2003), which is defined as the tendency to forego immediate self interests for the sake of the relationship (e.g., Van Lange et al., 1997). However, to date, most studies on sacrifice are self-report measures and hypothetical situations, with the lone exception being a behavioral measure employed by Van Lange et al. (1997) that required both romantic partners to participate in the study. Thus, the current study employed a behavioral measure of sacrifice that only requires one member of the relationship to be present. It was hypothesized that commitment and love would both be significant predictors of sacrificial behavior. In previous studies, love and commitment have been shown to predict sacrificial behavior. In this study, participants reported on their love and commitment. It was found that both love and commitment independently predicted sacrifice; however commitment is the stronger predictor of the two measures. As predicted, highly committed individuals sacrificed more often than less committed individuals. Additionally, individuals in love sacrificed at a higher rate than those not in love.

Lighting Design: Measure for Measure
Rachel Turos
Faculty Sponsor: Scott Chapman, Theatre

Measure for Measure by William Shakespeare is a play about justice and deception. The Director for the production, Fabio Polanco, set the play in the 1930s following the repeal of the Prohibition (1933). People were free to drink and party at will without fear of the government. The world of a 1930’s Speakeasy allowed the actors to represent people having a good time “legally” in the bar. The actors put on Shakespeare’s play as a tale of “life during prohibition.”
As a Lighting Designer, my job is to reinforce the Director’s vision for the play. This display will take you on a journey through the artistic and collaborative process of the lighting design for Measure for Measure. In reinforcing the Director’s vision, photographs of the 1930s became the inspiration and research for my lighting design. I wanted the audience to feel as if they were peering into an old photograph. To accomplish this feeling with light, I chose a number of different sepia tones which allowed the audience to be transported into the “photograph” of Measure for Measure. By using color, texture, and angle in the lighting, I was able to create the multiple locations and moods necessary for the action of the play to live in.

Spatial Distribution and Diffusion of Root-Exuded Thiopenes from Marigold (Tagetes spp.)
Tricia Matz
Faculty Sponsors: Brian Mohney & Jeffrey Weidenhamer, Chemistry

Marigold roots (Tagetes erecta and Tagetes patula) release the highly phytotoxic thiophenes 5-(3-buten-1-ynyl)-2,2’-bithienyl (BBT) and α-terthienyl (α-T) into surrounding soil. Recently, solid phase root zone extraction (SPRE) probes constructed from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) tubing have been shown to recover nano- to microgram quantities of thiophenes from soil beneath marigolds. The objective of these experiments was to use this new method to map the spatial distribution of thiophenes in soil. Marigolds were grown in PVC pipes with access ports for insertion of SPRE probes at eight different depths. Two other PDMS-based methods were evaluated for comparison: Marigolds were grown in a 1 cm thick layer of soil between two glass plates, and PDMS sheets pressed against the root mat. Alternately, 1 m lengths of PDMS microtubing were placed in soil and samples obtained by washing methanol through the tubing directly into an HPLC vial. Concentrations of the two major marigold thiophenes measured with the SPRE probes and PDMS sheets were extremely variable in both space and time. Dissection and analysis of roots indicated that distribution of thiophenes in marigold roots was also quite variable. However, results obtained using the microtubing showed more uniformity of response, and suggest that soil concentrations of marigold thiophenes are greatly affected even by minimal soil disturbance. The microtubing method, which is experimentally simple and uses inexpensive materials, should be broadly applicable to the measurement of non-polar root exudates, and thus provides a means to test hypotheses about the role of root exudates in plant-plant interactions.
Coping with Anger: An Examination Using the STAXI-2
Megan Sneeringer
Faculty Sponsor: Mitchell Metzger, Psychology

This is a correlational research analysis examining the anger expression of Ashland University college undergraduates using the State Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2 (STAXI-2). I sought to correlate this measure with the amount of physical exercise each student engages in per week and per month. It would seem plausible that there is a connection between anger and anger expression, especially the effects of anger on a person’s life in relation to their weekly physical exercise. The STAXI-2 was administered to students in the form of a questionnaire, with each question relating to the experience, expression, and control of anger. The self-reported responses measure state anger, angry feelings, verbal expression of anger, physical expression of anger, trait anger, angry temperament, angry reactions, inward and outward anger expression, inward and outward anger control, and a total anger index. The results of the STAXI-2 were then compared with subject responses that estimated their average amount of weekly and monthly exercise. It was hypothesized that the more a person engaged in physical exercise, the lower their score on the STAXI-2, and the less a person engages in physical activity, the higher their scores on the STAXI-2. A correlational analysis of the data showed that there was no significant relationship between STAXI-2 scores and amount of weekly or monthly exercise, and implications for the lack of significant effects will be discussed.

Enumeration and Identification of Bacterial Contaminants in Commercial and Locally Produced Honey
Amy Breslin, Wendy Dria, Brandi Meyer
Faculty Sponsor: Andrew Greene & David Vanata, Biology

Honey is commonly exposed to soil-borne microorganisms during production and harvest. Previous studies have shown that bacteria may persist in honey for long periods of time well after packaging, and pathogens, including Bacillus cereus and Clostridium botulinum, may be detectable in honey at the point of sale. Commercial production of honey generally involves blending honeys from multiple countries and uses heating to decrease viscosity, thereby easing filtration prior to packaging. Locally produced honey, in comparison, is subjected to less processing prior to packaging. Given these potential differences in processing, we hypothesized that commercially blended honey—products containing honey from multiple countries—would contain fewer bacteria per gram compared to locally produced honey. This project seeks to compare both the quantity and diversity of bacteria present in locally produced honey with commercially blended honey, at the point of sale to consumers. Plate count assays were used to determine the quantity of bacteria present in commercial (n = 13) and locally produced (n = 19) honey samples. Species identification and diversity were evaluated through 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing of cultured samples. Significantly higher numbers of CFU/g of honey were detectable in the locally produced honey samples in comparison to the commercial samples (Means: 1212.28 CFU/g vs. 400.41 CFU/g; p < 0.001). 16S rDNA sequencing indicated the presence of multiple Bacillus and Clostridium species in blended and local honey. These results support the hypothesis that locally produced honey tends to have a significantly higher content of bacteria in comparison to commercially blended honey.

The Influence of Color on Memory Recall
Theresa Ardiri, Joseph Stupica
Faculty Sponsor: Mitchell Metzger, Psychology

This experiment was conducted in order to better understand the effects of font color on the recall of emotional and neutral words. We have three hypotheses we assessed in this experiment. We hypothesized that colored words would have a higher recall rate than non-colored words. It was shown that red-colored words have an effect on reaction time with the Stroop Effect (Loan et al., 2008); we similarly wanted to investigate the possibility that color would have an effect on memory recall (Loan et al., 2008). We also hypothesized that emotional words would have a higher recall rate than neutral words. Our final hypothesis was that font color would have more of an impact on emotional words. The procedure involved forty words which were chosen from the ANEW word list (Affective Norms for English Words, 1999). These words were randomized, so that the colored and non-colored words were randomly presented to subjects, and a memory recall test was administered immediately after word presentation. It was found that the interaction effect of color and negative emotion was shown to be the strongest effect in this study. The interaction of these two variables caused an increase in memory recall, which was significant at the α=.05 level. This result suggests that the combination of both the color red and negative emotion caused an increase in recall on a memory test, supporting our hypothesis of font color having a larger impact on emotional words.

Combined Effects of Direct-Acting Michael Acceptor Combinations Vary Depending on Reactivity Rates and Time-Dependent Toxicity of the Agents
Nicole Genco, Zach Il’Giovine
Faculty Sponsor: Douglas Dawson, Biology & Toxicology

Microtox was used to evaluate the combined effects of binary mixtures of direct-acting Michael acceptors. Four agents: p-benzoquinone (pBQ), 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (2HEA), diethyl maleate (DEM), and hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPM) were tested for reactivity with glutathione. Each agent was also tested for toxicity with each other at 15, 30 and 45 minutes. Data from seven duplicated concentrations and a control for each single agent and mixture were fit to sigmoid curves using a fourparameter logistic function. Data analysis gave time-dependent toxicity (TDT), and additivity quotient (AQ) or independence quotient (IQ) values, for which an EC50-AQ or EC50-IQ value of about1.0 represents dose-addition or independence, respectively. Final determinations of combined effects were aided by reactivity rates, slopes, and EC25-AQ/ IQ and EC75-AQ/IQ values. Reactivity rates provide information relevant to TDT; while slope and AQ/IQ values examine fit of experimental curves to predicted curves at other than the mid-point. TDT levels (pBQ—none, 2HEA—high, DEM—moderate, HPM—low) and relative reactivity rates (pB—very fast, 2HEA—fast, DEM—slow, HPM— very slow) varied among the four agents, thereby affecting mixture toxicity. Each pBQ-containing combination was less-than dose-additive (EC50-AQs above 1.18). For 2HEA-DEM (1.05-1.10) and 2HEA-HPM (0.95-0.98), EC50-AQ values were closer to dose-additive. DEM-HPM EC50-AQ values were greater-than expected for dose-addition (0.81- 0.87). The results can best be explained by the multiple mode of toxic action concept that when toxicity of an agent is not fully time-dependent the agent exerts two toxic actions—one due to narcosis and the other due to its reactivity with nucleophiles within cells, such as enzymes.

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